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Musculoskeletal Imaging

The UC San Diego Musculoskeletal (MSK) Imaging Division offers leading-edge imaging of the spine and joints. Radiography, ultrasound, MRI and CT scanning provide detailed anatomy of structures to detect and evaluate diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Advanced imaging techniques provide additional insight into physiology, chemistry, physical structure, and function. The division is led by world-class faculty who are experienced in all aspects of MSK disease.

Division Faculty

Chang, Eric MDClinical Professor Musculoskeletal Imaginge8chang@ucsd.edu
Chung, Christine MDProfessor in Residence Musculoskeletal Imagingcbchung@ucsd.edu
Fliszar, Evelyne MDHS Clinical Professor Musculoskeletal Imagingefliszar@ucsd.edu
Gentili, Amilcare MDHS Clinical Professor Musculoskeletal Imagingagentili@ucsd.edu
Huang, Brady MDHS Assistant Clinical Professor Musculoskeletal Imagingb4huang@ucsd.edu
Hughes, Tudor MDHS Clinical Professor Musculoskeletal Imagingthughes@ucsd.edu
https://editmedschool.ucsd.edu/som/radiology/clinical/divisions/Musculoskeletal-Imaging/PublishingImages/Pathria.jpg
Pathria, Mini MDHS Clinical Professor and Division Chief Musculoskeletal Imagingmpathria@ucsd.edu
Resnick, Donald MDHS Clinical Professor Musculoskeletal Imagingdresnick@ucsd.edu
Sampath, Srihari MDHS Assistant Clinical Professor Musculoskeletal Imagingsrsampath@ucsd.edu
Sampath, Srinath MDHS Assistant Clinical Professor Musculoskeletal Imagings1sampath@ucsd.edu
Smitaman, Edward MDHS Associate Clinical Professor Musculoskeletal Imagingesmitaman@ucsd.edu


Musculoskeletal Imaging & Interventional Services

MSK MRI

MSK MRI

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MSK Radiography

MSK Radiography

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MSK Ultrasound

MSK Ultrasound

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MSK Special Procedures

MSK Special Procedures

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MSK Dexa

MSK Dexa

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News & Upcoming Events

10/29 - 10/31/2021

See our very own Drs. Resnick, Chung and Hughes lecture at the Post Graduate Radiology Course! Learn about the knee, spine, cartilage and more! Course information and registration here. Download the meeting brochure here

9/22/2021

Former fellow Dr. Wilson Lin gives an excellent review of imaging of spinal surgery. Thank you Dr. Lin!

09/10/2021

A world-reknown expert in imaging of the hip, Dr. Blankenbaker from the University of Wisconsin gives an in depth review of hip pathology. Go Badgers! 

08/24/2021

A master of his craft, Dr. Rubin gives a informative lecture on practicle ways to improve MSK MRI image quality! 

07/29/2021

Back at it again! Dr. Goodwin, former 93-94 fellow revisits ankle trauma with some new tricks up his sleeve! Thank you Dr. Goodwin!

7/1/20201

UCSD MSK welcomes its new fellows!

Recent Publications


Comparison of Radiographic, Ultrasound, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Detection of Retained Stingray Barb: A Cadaveric Study. Docter TA, Altschuh LB, Medak AJ, Statum SM, Chung CB, Van Hoesen KB, Coffey CH.
Wilderness Environ Med. 2021 Sep;32(3):302-307. PMID: 34294537

Ultrashort echo time Cones double echo steady state (UTE-Cones-DESS) for rapid morphological imaging of short T2 tissues. Jang H, Ma Y, Carl M, Jerban S, Chang EY, Du J. Magn Reson Med. 2021 Aug;86(2):881-892. PMID: 33755258

High contrast cartilaginous endplate imaging using a 3D adiabatic inversion-recovery-prepared fat-saturated ultrashort echo time (3D IR-FS-UTE) sequence. Lombardi AF, Wei Z, Wong J, Carl M, Lee RR, Wallace M, Masuda K, Chang EY, Du J, Ma YJ. NMR Biomed. 2021 Jul 5:e4579. PMID: 34219287

Musculoskeletal ultrasound in hemophilia: Results and recommendations from a global survey and consensus meeting.
Bakeer N, Dover S, Babyn P, Feldman BM, von Drygalski A, Doria AS, Ignas DM, Abad A, Bailey C, Beggs I, Chang EY, Dunn A, Funk S, Gibikote S, Goddard N, Hilliard P, Keshava SN, Kruse-Jarres R, Li Y, Lobet S, Manco-Johnson M, Martinoli C, O'Donnell JS, Papakonstantinou O, Pergantou H, Poonnoose P, Querol F, Srivastava A, Steiner B, Strike K, Timmer M, Tyrrell PN, Vidarsson L, Blanchette VS. Res Pract Thromb Haemost. 2021 Jul 10;5(5):e12531. PMID: 34268464  

Ultrashort echo time adiabatic T1ρ (UTE-Adiab-T1ρ) is sensitive to human cadaveric knee joint deformation induced by mechanical loading and unloading. Jerban S, Ma Y, Kasibhatla A, Wu M, Szeverenyi N, Guma M, Covey D, D'lima D, Ward SR, Sah RL, Chang EY, Du J, Chung CB. Magn Reson Imaging. 2021 Jul;80:98-105. PMID: 33945858

Ultrashort echo time adiabatic T1ρ (UTE-Adiab-T1ρ) is sensitive to human cadaveric knee joint deformation induced by mechanical loading and unloading. Jerban S, Ma Y, Kasibhatla A, Wu M, Szeverenyi N, Guma M, Covey D, D'lima D, Ward SR, Sah RL, Chang EY, Du J, Chung CB. Magn Reson Imaging. 2021 Jul;80:98-105. PMID: 33945858

Starting a Free Ultrasound Clinic for the Underserved: Considerations and Overcoming Challenges. Tadros A, Manning P, Smitaman E, Chong A, Wang K, Tamayo-Murillo D. Acad Radiol. 2021 Jul;28(7):938-943. PMID: 34130923

Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament on Zero Echo Time MRI With "CT-Like" Contrast. Ma YJ, Chang EY. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2021 Jun 2. PMID: 34076461 

Osteochondritis dissecans of the talar dome in patients with tarsal coalition. Cheng KY, Fuangfa P, Shirazian H, Resnick D, Smitaman E. Skeletal Radiol. 2021 Jun 23. PMID: 34160680

Association Between Rotator Cuff Tears and Superior Migration of the Humeral Head: An MRI-Based Anatomic Study. Siow MY, Mitchell BC, Hachadorian M, Wang W, Bastrom T, Kent WT, Huang BK, Edmonds EW. Orthop J Sports Med. 2021 Jun 10;9(6):23259671211009846. PMID: 34179206 

Initial Experience With Formal Near-Peer Mentoring in Radiology Residency. Cheng K, Grabowski C, Chong A, Yen A, Chung CB. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2021 Jun 9:S0363-0188(21)00094-3. PMID: 34246507

Is There a Role for Cartilage Imaging in Athletes? Yamamoto A, Levine BD, Padron M, Chung CB. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2020 Jun;24(3):246-255. PMID: 32987423 Review.

An Unexpected Myxofibrosarcoma Seen on Ultrasound of the Knee. Hughes T, Fraiser R, Eastman A. Pain Med. 2021 Jun 4;22(6):1445-1447. PMID: 34100075 

Editorial for "Change in Susceptibility Values in Knee Cartilage After Marathon Running Measured Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping". Jang H, Chang EY, Du J. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2021 May 24. PMID: 34031941 
 
Editorial for "Association Between T2* Relaxation Times Derived from Ultrashort Echo Time (UTE) MRI and Symptoms During Exercise Therapy for Patellar Tendinopathy: A Large Prospective Study". Wu M, Chung CB, Du J. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2021 May 30. PMID: 34056786  

AcidoCEST MRI Evaluates the Bone Microenvironment in Multiple Myeloma. Lombardi AF, Wong JH, High R, Ma Y, Jerban S, Tang Q, Du J, Frost P, Pagel MD, Chang EY. Mol Imaging Biol. 2021 May 3. PMID: 33939066

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of meniscal pathology ex vivo. Bae WC, Tadros AS, Finkenstaedt T, Du J, Statum S, Chung CB. Skeletal Radiol. 2021 May 13. PMID: 33983499

Systemic vascular basement membrane markers linked to synovial vascular remodeling are biomarkers of hemarthrosis in patients with hemophilia. Gopal S, Barnes RFW, Cooke EJ, Zhou JY, Levin I, Emery P, Hughes TH, Karsdal MA, Manon-Jensen T, von Drygalski A. J Thromb Haemost. 2021 May;19(5):1200-1211. PMID: 33587779
 
Quantitative 3D Ultrashort Echo Time Magnetization Transfer Imaging for Evaluation of Knee Cartilage Degeneration In Vivo. Xue YP, Ma YJ, Wu M, Jerban S, Wei Z, Chang EY, Du J. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2021 Apr 24. PMID: 33894091
  
Elbow Imaging with an Emphasis on MRI. Anderson MW, Chung CB. 2021 Apr 13. In: Hodler J, Kubik-Huch RA, von Schulthess GK, editors. Musculoskeletal Diseases 2021-2024: Diagnostic Imaging [Internet]. Cham (CH): Springer; 2021. Chapter 3. PMID: 33950626 

Spine Trauma. Chang CY, Pathria MN. 2021 Apr 13. In: Hodler J, Kubik-Huch RA, von Schulthess GK, editors. Musculoskeletal Diseases 2021-2024: Diagnostic Imaging [Internet]. Cham (CH): Springer; 2021. Chapter 13.
PMID: 33950617  

Automated cartilage segmentation and quantification using 3D ultrashort echo time (UTE) cones MR imaging with deep convolutional neural networks. Xue YP, Jang H, Byra M, Cai ZY, Wu M, Chang EY, Ma YJ, Du J. Eur Radiol. 2021 Mar 30. PMID: 33783571
 
Failing Up the Core Exam. Chong A, Smitaman E, Kagetsu NJ, Kamath A. J Am Coll Radiol. 2021 Mar;18(3 Pt B):520-521. PMID: 33080183

Novel fluorescent staining protocol for thick sections of human osteochondral tissues to facilitate correlation with MRI and CT. Tang Q, Lombardi AF, Le N, Wong JH, Williams JL, Du J, Chang EY. Skeletal Radiol. 2021 Feb 27:10.1007/s00256-021-03746-3. PMID: 33638655

A Useful Combination of Quantitative Ultrashort Echo Time MR Imaging and a Probing Device for Biomechanical Evaluation of Articular Cartilage. Hananouchi T, Chen Y, Jerban S, Teramoto M, Ma Y, Dorthe EW, Chang EY, Du J, D'Lima DD. Biosensors (Basel). 2021 Feb 17;11(2):52. PMID: 33671280 

Brain ultrashort T2 component imaging using a short TR adiabatic inversion recovery prepared dual-echo ultrashort TE sequence with complex echo subtraction (STAIR-dUTE-ES). Ma YJ, Jang H, Wei Z, Wu M, Chang EY, Corey-Bloom J, Bydder GM, Du J. J Magn Reson. 2021 Feb;323:106898. PMID: 33429170
 
MR imaging pattern of tibial subchondral bone structure: considerations of meniscal coverage and integrity. Ariyachaipanich A, Kaya E, Statum S, Biswas R, Tran B, Bae WC, Chung CB. Skeletal Radiol. 2020 Dec;49(12):2019-2027. PMID: 32591855

High-Density Mineralized Protrusions and Central Osteophytes: Associated Osteochondral Junction Abnormalities in Osteoarthritis. Lombardi AF, Tang Q, Wong JH, Williams JL, Jerban S, Ma Y, Jang H, Du J, Chang EY. Diagnostics (Basel). 2020 Dec 5;10(12):1051. PMID: 33291470 

Patel S, Chung CB (2021). Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Elbow. In F Azar (Ed.). Orthopaedic Knowledge Update®: Sports Medicine (6th ed., pp. 775-781). Wolters Kluwer Health.

Huang BK (2021). Imaging of the Hip. In F Azar (Ed.). Orthopaedic Knowledge Update®: Sports Medicine (6th ed., pp. 783-800). Wolters Kluwer Health.

Hu B, Chung CB (2021). Imaging of the Foot and Ankle. In F Azar (Ed.). Orthopaedic Knowledge Update®: Sports Medicine (6th ed., pp. 811-820). Wolters Kluwer Health.

Identifying the axillary nerve during shoulder surgery: an anatomic study using advanced imaging. JSES Int. 2020 Dec; 4(4):987-991. Hachadorian ME, Mitchell BC, Siow MY, Wang W, Bastrom T, Sullivan TB, Huang BK, Edmonds EW, Kent WT. PMID: 33345245.

Practical ultrasonographic technique to precisely identify and differentiate tendons and ligaments of the elbow at the level of the humeral epicondyles: anatomical study. Skeletal Radiol. 2020 Dec 11. Omoumi P, Gondim Teixeira PA, Ward SR, Trudell D, Resnick D. PMID: 33313976.

Dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON) among the artisanal diving fishermen of Yucatán, Mexico. Diving Hyperb Med. 2020 Dec 20; 50(4):391-398. Popa D, Medak A, Chin W, Huchim-Lara O, Fliszar EHughes T, Grover I. PMID: 33325021.

Detecting Articular Cartilage and Meniscus Deformation Effects Using Magnetization Transfer Ultrashort Echo Time (MT-UTE) Modeling during Mechanical Load Application: Ex Vivo Feasibility Study. Cartilage. 2020 Dec 08; 1947603520976771. Jerban S, Kasibhatla A, Ma Y, Wu M, Chen Y, Guo T, Wan L, Szeverenyi N, Chang EY, Du J. PMID: 33289401.

High-Density Mineralized Protrusions and Central Osteophytes: Associated Osteochondral Junction Abnormalities in Osteoarthritis. Diagnostics (Basel). 2020 Dec 05; 10(12). Lombardi AF, Tang Q, Wong JH, Williams JL, Jerban S, Ma Y, Jang H, Du J, Chang EY. PMID: 33291470.

Greater trochanteric fractures with lntertrochanteric extension identified on MRI: What is the rate of displacement when treated nonoperatively? Injury. 2020 Nov; 51(11):2648-2651. Kent WT, Whitchurch T, Siow M, Mitchell B, Chun L, Bardesi J, Huang B. PMID: 32792156.

Periosteal stripping in high ankle sprains: An association with osteonecrosis. Clin Imaging. 2020 Nov; 67:237-245. Baldassarre RL, Pathria MNHuang BK, Dwek JR, Fliszar EA. PMID: 32871428.

Identification and Characterization of the Intra-Articular Microbiome in the Osteoarthritic Knee. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Nov 16; 21(22). Tsai JC, Casteneda G, Lee A, Dereschuk K, Li WT, Chakladar J, Lombardi AF, Ongkeko WM, Chang EY. PMID: 33207573.

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Acute Trauma to the Ankle. J Am Coll Radiol. 2020 Nov; 17(11S):S355-S366. PMID: 33153549.

Failing Up the Core Exam. J Am Coll Radiol. 2020 Oct 17. Chong A, Smitaman E, Kagetsu NJ, Kamath A. PMID: 33080183.
   
Assessment of mechanical properties of articular cartilage with quantitative three-dimensional ultrashort echo time (UTE) cones magnetic resonance imaging. J Biomech. 2020 Oct 24; 113:110085. Namiranian B, Jerban S, Ma Y, Dorthe EW, Masoud-Afsahi A, Wong J, Wei Z, Chen Y, D'Lima D, Chang EY, Du J. PMID: 33147490.

An Update in Qualitative Imaging of Bone Using Ultrashort Echo Time Magnetic Resonance. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020; 11:555756. Jerban S, Chang DG, Ma Y, Jang H, Chang EY, Du J. PMID: 33117275.

Using machine learning of clinical data to diagnose COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2020 09 29; 20(1):247. Li WT, Ma J, Shende N, Castaneda G, Chakladar J, Tsai JC, Apostol L, Honda CO, Xu J, Wong LM, Zhang T, Lee A, Gnanasekar A, Honda TK, Kuo SZ, Yu MA, Chang EY, Rajasekaran MR, Ongkeko WM. PMID: 32993652.

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cortical and Trabecular Bone. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2020 Aug; 24(4):386-401. Jerban S, Ma Y, Wei Z, Jang H, Chang EY, Du J. PMID: 32992367.

Advanced Quantitative MSK Imaging. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2020 08; 24(4):335-336. Chang EY, Oei EHG. PMID: 32992362.

Imaging of the Acromioclavicular Joint: Anatomy, Function, Pathologic Features, and Treatment. Radiographics. 2020 Sep-Oct; 40(5):1355-1382. Flores DV, Goes PK, Gómez CM, Umpire DF, Pathria MN. PMID: 32762593.

The Pancreatic Microbiome is Associated with Carcinogenesis and Worse Prognosis in Males and Smokers. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Sep 18; 12(9). Chakladar J, Kuo SZ, Castaneda G, Li WT, Gnanasekar A, Yu MA, Chang EY, Wang XQ, Ongkeko WM. PMID: 32962112

Quantitative Ultrashort Echo Time (UTE) Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bone: An Update. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020; 11:567417. Ma YJ, Jerban S, Jang H, Chang D, Chang EY, Du J. PMID: 33071975.

Influence of Intratumor Microbiome on Clinical Outcome and Immune Processes in Prostate Cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Sep 05; 12(9). Ma J, Gnanasekar A, Lee A, Li WT, Haas M, Wang-Rodriguez J, Chang EY, Rajasekaran M, Ongkeko WM. PMID: 32899474.

Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Pol J Radiol. 2020; 85:e440-e460. Lombardi A, Ashir A, Gorbachova T, Taljanovic MS, Chang EY. PMID: 32999696.

Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder. Pol J Radiol. 2020; 85:e420-e439. Ashir A, Lombardi A, Jerban S, Ma Y, Du J, Chang EY. PMID: 32999695.

Myelin Imaging in Human Brain Using a Short Repetition Time Adiabatic Inversion Recovery Prepared Ultrashort Echo Time (STAIR-UTE) MRI Sequence in Multiple Sclerosis. Radiology. 2020 11; 297(2):392-404. Ma YJ, Jang H, Wei Z, Cai Z, Xue Y, Lee RR, Chang EY, Bydder GM, Corey-Bloom J, Du J. PMID: 32779970.

Rapid single scan ramped hybrid-encoding for bicomponent T2* mapping in a human knee joint: A feasibility study. NMR Biomed. 2020 Nov; 33(11):e4391. Jang H, McMillan AB, Ma Y, Jerban S, Chang EY, Du J, Kijowski R. PMID: 32761692.
   
Tobacco, but Not Nicotine and Flavor-Less Electronic Cigarettes, Induces ACE2 and Immune Dysregulation. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jul 31; 21(15). Lee AC, Chakladar J, Li WT, Chen C, Chang EY, Wang-Rodriguez J, Ongkeko WM. PMID: 32752138.

Volumetric imaging of myelin in vivo using 3D inversion recovery-prepared ultrashort echo time cones magnetic resonance imaging. NMR Biomed. 2020 Jul 20; e4326. Ma YJ, Searleman AC, Jang H, Fan SJ, Wong J, Xue Y, Cai Z, Chang EY, Corey-Bloom J, Du J. PMID: 32691472.

Fast quantitative three-dimensional ultrashort echo time (UTE) Cones magnetic resonance imaging of major tissues in the knee joint using extended sprial sampling. NMR Biomed. 2020 Jul 15; e4376. Wan L, Ma Y, Yang J, Jerban S, Searleman AC, Carl M, Le N, Chang EY, Tang G, Du J. PMID: 32667115

Ultrashort echo time quantitative susceptibility mapping (UTE-QSM) for detection of hemosiderin deposition in hemophilic arthropathy: A feasibility study. Magn Reson Med. 2020 Jul 14. Jang H, von Drygalski A, Wong J, Zhou JY, Aguero P, Lu X, Cheng X, Ball ST, Ma Y, Chang EY, Du J. PMID: 32662904

Distal insertional anatomy of the triceps brachii muscle: MRI assessment in cadaveric specimens employing histologic correlation and Play-doh® models of the anatomic findings. Skeletal Radiol. 2020 Jul; 49(7):1057-1067. Negrão JR, Mogami R, Ramirez Ruiz FA, Wagner FV, Haghighi P, Ward SR, Resnick DL. PMID: 31993688

High-Resolution MRI of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint: Gross Anatomy and Injury Characterization. Radiographics. 2020 Jul-Aug; 40(4):1107-1124. Hallinan JTPD, Statum SM, Huang BK, Bezerra HG, Garcia DAL, Bydder GM, Chung CB. PMID: 32412828

Is There a Role for Cartilage Imaging in Athletes? Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2020 Jun; 24(3):246-255. Yamamoto A, Levine BD, Padron M, Chung CB. PMID: 32987423.

MR imaging pattern of tibial subchondral bone structure: considerations of meniscal coverage and integrity. Skeletal Radiol. 2020 Jun 26. Ariyachaipanich A, Kaya E, Statum S, Biswas R, Tran B, Bae WC, Chung CB. PMID: 32591855

Posttraumatic subarachnoid fat embolism: Case presentation and literature review. Clin Imaging. 2020 Jun 20; 68:121-123. Chaturvedi R, Williams A, Farid N, Retson T, Smitaman E. PMID: 32592972

Mallet hallux injury: A case report and literature review. Clin Imaging. 2020 Jun; 62:33-36. Biondetti P, Dalstrom DJ, Ilfeld B, Smitaman E. PMID: 32044577
   
Shoulder Tumor/Tumor-Like Lesions: What to Look for. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2020 May; 28(2):301-316. Hallinan JTPD, Huang BK. PMID: 32241665.

Manubrial pseudolesion: a secondary sign of thoracic outlet syndrome. Clin Imaging. 2020 May 16; 66:98-100. Shroads MR, Weihe E, Smitaman E. PMID: 32464509
   
Tears in the distal superficial medial collateral ligament: the wave sign and other associated MRI findings. Skeletal Radiol. 2020 May; 49(5):747-756. Boutin RD, Fritz RC, Walker REA, Pathria MN, Marder RA, Yao L. PMID: 31820044

Osteochondroma of the temporal styloid process: a common disease in a rare but vulnerable location. Clin Imaging. 2020 Apr 19; 65:5-7. Chaturvedi R, Lin GY, Wang W, Smitaman E. PMID: 32344289

Pectoralis major tendon and enthesis: anatomic, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonographic, and histologic investigation. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2020 Mar 10. Huang BK, Wong JH, Haghighi P, Wan L, Du J, Chang EY. PMID: 32169467

Accessory anterolateral talar facet associated with tarsal coalition: prevalence and cross-sectional characterization. Skeletal Radiol. 2020 Mar; 49(3):417-424. Alqahtani E, Fliszar E, Resnick DL, Huang BK. PMID: 31402414.

Radiographic/MR Imaging Correlation of the Shoulder. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2019 Nov; 27(4):575-585. Goes PCK, Pathria MN. PMID: 31575394

Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity: Anatomy, Biomechanics, Staging, and Imaging Findings. Radiographics. 2019 Sep-Oct; 39(5):1437-1460. Flores DV, Mejía Gómez C, Fernández Hernando M, Davis MA, Pathria MN. PMID: 31498747.

Standard and Advanced Imaging of Hip Osteoarthritis. What the Radiologist Should Know. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2019 Jun; 23(3):289-303. Huang BK, Tan W, Scherer KF, Rennie W, Chung CB, Bancroft LW. PMID: 31163503

Development and Reliability of the Joint Tissue Activity and Damage Examination for Quantitation of Structural Abnormalities by Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Hemophilic Joints. J Ultrasound Med. 2019 Jun; 38(6):1569-1581. Volland LM, Zhou JY, Barnes RFW, Kruse-Jarres R, Steiner B, Quon DV, Bailey C, Hughes TH, Moore RE, Chang EY, von Drygalski A. PMID: 30371941

Pes Anserinus: Anatomy and Pathology of Native and Harvested Tendons. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2019 11; 213(5):1107-1116. Curtis BR, Huang BK, Pathria MN, Resnick DL, Smitaman E. PMID: 31361527