Malarial Antibiotic Resistance
The development of resistance to drugs poses one of the greatest threats to control of malaria, increasing malarial morbidity and mortality. In two of the four human malarial parasite species, P. falciparum and P. vivax, resistance has already been detected. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum was first detected in the late 1950s, while chloroquine-resistant
P. vivax was first identified in 1989. P. falciparum has also developed resistance to nearly all of the currently available antimalarial drugs, such as sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine, halofantrine, and quinine. Recently resistance to the artemisinin-based combination therapy has emerged, impacting the efficacy of this vital antimalarial class.