C. Diff Antibiotic Resistance
All antibiotic classes may promote CDI by disrupting the current microbes residing in the intestine, allowing C. diff to grow, colonize and infect. This means that resistance to multiple antibiotics is a selective advantage for C.diff strains, because it would enhance their survival and spread. This is seen in the majority of epidemic and emergent strains (~60% of analyzed strains), which show resistance to multiple antibiotics. The majority of resistance in C.diff clinical isolates are to cephalosporins (stop bacterial cell wall), fluoroquinolones (stops bacterial DNA replication), and erythromycin and clindamycin (stops bacterial protein synthesis). C. diff has multiple methods to become resistant to antibiotics, include resistance genes, forming a biofilm, and changing the target of the antibiotic.