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Third Year Fellows

Dr. Chen was born and raised in Nantou, Taiwan. He attended medical school at National Taiwan University in Taipei. After graduating medical school, he came to the United States as a post-doctoral researcher at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. He was involved in programming to extract information from unstructured and high-resolution data in a large medical ICU database. He then performed statistical modeling in propensity score matching by utilizing machine learning structure to answer clinical questions. These exposures planted his interest in critical care medicine. He then attended Internal Medicine Residency Program in a Yale School of Medicine-affiliated institution, during which time, his interest in pulmonary disease and critical care medicine continued to grow. He was especially interested in the clinical application of point-of-care ultrasound in lung diseases and the care of critically ill patients. He conducted a meta-analysis project during his residency looking into the utility of lung and pleural ultrasound in diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients. After joining the Pulmonary and Critical Care Fellowship Program at UC San Diego, he volunteers his time in ultrasound education for the residents and medical students. With the passion for critical care ultrasound, he passed the inaugural Examination of Special Competence in Critical Care Echocardiography (CCEeXAM) from the National Board of Echocardiography. During the research year of the fellowship, he plans to study ventilator-induced myotrauma to the diaphragm utilizing diaphragm ultrasound, hoping to identify early indicators of myotrauma and the potential of diaphragm-protective ventilation. He is also interested in non-invasive ventilation in chronic hypercarbic respiratory failure. Despite the intense training and busy schedule of the fellowship, Dr. Chen takes the full advantage of living in San Diego exploring the outdoor activities to strike life-and-work balance. He is an avid swimmer and licensed lifeguard coach. He enjoys cooking as much as exploring the fine and diverse restaurants in San Diego.
  • 2005-2012: National Taiwan University School of Medicine, M.D.
  • 2015-2018: Yale School of Medicine, Danbury Hospital Internal Medicine Residency
  • 2018-2021: University of California San Diego, Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine Fellowship
  • Critical care ultrasound
  • Respiratory physiology
  • Non-invasive ventilation

Peer-reviewed articles

  1. Chen KP, Lee J, Mark RG, et al. Proton pump inhibitor use is not associated with cardiac arrhythmia in critically ill patients. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Published online 2015. doi:10.1002/jcph.479
  2. Hsu DJ, Feng M, Kothari R, Zhou H, Chen KP, Celi LA. The association between indwelling arterial catheters and mortality in hemodynamically stable patients with respiratory failure a propensity score analysis. Chest. Published online 2015. doi:10.1378/chest.15-0516
  3. Chen KP, Cavender S, Lee J, et al. Peripheral Edema, Central Venous Pressure, and Risk of AKI in Critical Illness. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. Published online 2016. doi:10.2215/CJN.08080715
  4. Danziger J, Chen KP, Lee J, et al. Obesity, Acute Kidney Injury, and Mortality in Critical Illness. Critical Care Medicine. 2016;44(2). doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001398
  5. Danziger J, Chen KP, Cavender S, et al. Admission peripheral edema, central venous pressure, and survival in critically ill patients. Annals of the American Thoracic Society. Published online 2016. doi:10.1513/AnnalsATS.201511-737OC
  6. Moskowitz A, Chen KP, Cooper AZ, Chahin A, Ghassemi MM, Celi LA. Management of Atrial Fibrillation with Rapid Ventricular Response in the Intensive Care Unit. SHOCK. Published online March 21, 2017:1. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000869
  7. Tsou PY, Chen KP, Wang YH, et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of Lung Ultrasound Performed by Novice Versus Advanced Sonographers for Pneumonia in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2019;26(9):1074-1088. doi:10.1111/acem.13818

Book Chapters

  1. Chen KP, Moskowitz A. Comparative Effectiveness: Propensity Score Analysis. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-43742-2_23
  2. Moskowitz A, Chen KP. Defining the Patient Cohort. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-43742-2_10

Abhishek Gadre

Dr. Gadre joined UCSD as a Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine Fellow in 2018. He attended medical school at Maulana Azad Medical College (New Delhi) and received a national scholarship for being one of the top 20 students amongst more than 2,00,000 applicants in the country. Dr. Gadre completed his Internal Medicine Residency at Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland OH, during which he developed a special interest in patients with lung diseases, and care of critically ill patients. During his residency training he received a Research Scholarship from the American Thoracic Society for his research in Pulmonary Hypertension and Scleroderma. He also received an Award for Excellence in Teaching from the Cleveland Clinic Education Foundation. Dr. Gadre has presented his research at multiple national meeting including CHEST and ATS, and has published his work in various peer reviewed medical journals. During his fellowship at UCSD, Dr. Gadre continues to pursue his clinical and research interests in Pulmonary Vascular Disease.
  • 2007-2013: Medical School Maulana Azad Medical College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, Indi
  • 2014 -2017: Internal Medicine Residency Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland OH
  • 2018: Current Pulmonary & Critical Care Fellowship University of California San Diego, La Jolla CA

Dr. Husain came to United States after completing medical school in Pakistan to join Emory University, Atlanta, as a research scholar in the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care. He spent two years participating in various clinical research projects on ARDS and sepsis, subsequently developing a keen interest in sepsis biomarkers. He then went on to train as an internal medicine resident in Atlanta and was actively involved in the sepsis committee that looked at compliance with sepsis bundles. During his residency, he did an away elective rotation at University of Florida, where he worked closely with intervention pulmonology and was drawn towards advanced diagnostic modalities for lung cancer. He now continues to pursue his clinical and research interests in Pulmonary and Critical Care as a fellow at University of California San Diego.
  • 2011: Dow Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan, MBBS
  • 2012-2014: Emory University, Atlanta, Research Scholar
  • 2014-2015: University of Florida, Gainesville, Graduate Certificate in Public Health
  • 2015-2018: Wellstar Atlanta Medical Center, Internship and Residency, Internal Medicine
  • 2018-2021: University of California San Diego, Fellowship, Pulmonary & Critical Care
  • Early detection of lung cancer
  • Sepsis biomarker panels
  1. Daouk S, Husain AA, Fakih HAM, Faruqi I. Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) in the Medical Intensive Care Unit. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2018, May;197:A3296
  2. Husain AA, Ahmed AO, Amin OI, Berger M, Tomazic-Allen S, Brown M, Sevransky JE, Martin GS. Predictors of early antibiotic administration in patients suspected of sepsis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2015. May;191:A3994
  3. Husain AA, Martin GS. What’s old is new again: acetaminophen as a novel approach to treating sepsis. Critical Care Medicine. 2015, Mar; 43(3): 698 – 699.
  4. Ahmed H, Husain AA, Martin GS, Sevransky J, Murphy DJ. Process of care elements associated with the failure to provide lung protective ventilation for patients with ARDS. CHEST. 2013, Oct; 144(4): 375A

Dr. Lin was born and raised in Atlanta, Georgia. During her undergraduate training at Duke University, she developed a passion for medicine while investigating the impact of hyperglycemia in patients on total parenteral nutrition. While earning her medical degree at University of Alabama at Birmingham, she analyzed coagulopathy in ventilator-associated pneumonia. While she was completing her residency at Mayo Clinic, she studied a broad range of disease processes in both Pulmonary and Critical Care fields, solidifying her decision to pursue a career in this field. Specifically, she retrospectively examined outcomes in pulmonary mucormycosis and rheumatoid arthritis-associated obliterative bronchiolitis. Furthermore, she participated in a prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the utility of early administration of midodrine during septic shock. Currently, she is a third-year fellow at University of California San Diego.
  • 2007-2011: Duke University, B.S. in Chemistry with Biochemistry Concentration, Durham, NC
  • 2011-2015: University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, M.D., Birmingham, AL
  • 2015-2018: Mayo Clinic, Internal Medicine Residency Program, Rochester, MN
  • 2018-2021: University of California San Diego, Pulmonary & Critical Care Fellowship Program, San Diego, CA
  • Lung cancer and immunotherapy-associated pneumonitis
  • Pulmonary manifestations after stem-cell transplant
  • Respiratory infections in immunocompromised host
  • Medical Education
  1. E Lin, AH Limper, T Moua. Obliterative Bronchiolitis Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Analysis of a Single-Center Case Series. BMC Pulm Med. 2018. 18:105. PMID: 29929518.
  2. MS Rizvi, V Trivedi, F Nasim, E Lin, R Kashyap, N Andrijasevic, O Gajic. Trends in Use of Midodrine in the ICU: A Single-Center Retrospective Case Series. Crit Care Med. 2018 Jul. 46(7): e628-33. PMID: 29613861.
  3. E Lin, H Veeramachaneni, B Addissie, A Arora. Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas. Am J Med Sci. 2018 Jan. 355(1):94-6. PMID: 29289270.
  4. E Lin, T Moua, AH Limper. Pulmonary Mucormycosis: Clinical Features and Outcomes. Infection. 2017 Aug. 45(4):443-8. PMID: 28220379.
  5. E Lin, I Hujoel, TJ Mason. Still febrile after all these weeks. Am J Med. 2017 Mar. 130(3): e81-e83. PMID: 27751898.
  6. D Younan, E Lin, R Griffin, S. Vanlandingham, A Waters, M Harrigan, JF Pittet, JD Kerby. Early trauma-induced coagulopathy is associated with increased ventilator-associated pneumonia in spinal cord injury patients. Shock. 2016 May. 45(5): 502-5. PMID: 26863121.
  7. E Lin, DN Peles, JD Simon. The effect of hydration on the UV absorption coefficient of intact melanosomes. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2012 Apr. 11(4): 687-91. PMID: 22231491.
  8. DN Peles, E Lin, K Wakamatsu, S Ito, JD Simon. Ultraviolet absorption coefficients of melanosomes containing eumelanin as related to the relative content of DHI and DHICA. J Phys Chem Lett. 2010 Jul. 1(15): 2391-5.
  9. FJ Pasquel, D Smiley, R Spiegelman, E Lin, L Peng, GE Umpierrez. Hyperglycemia is associated with increased hospital complications and mortality during parenteral nutrition. Hosp Practice. 2011 Apr. 39(2). PMID: 21576900.
  10. A Frisch, P Chandra, D Smiley, L Peng, M Rizzo, C Gatcliffe, M Hudson, J Mendoza, R Johnson, E Lin, GE Umpierrez. Prevalence and clinical outcome of hyperglycemia in the perioperative period in non-cardiac surgery. Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug. 33(8): 1783-8. PMID: 20435798.
  11. FJ Pasquel, R Spiegelman, M McCauley, D Smiley, D Umpierrez, R Johnson, M Rhee, C Gatcliffe, E Lin, E Umpierrez, L Peng, GE Umpierrez. Hyperglycemia during total parenteral nutrition: An important marker of poor outcome and mortality in hospitalized patients. Diabetes Care. 2010 Apr. 33(4): 739-41. PMID: 20040658.
  12. J Cho, Q Lin, S Yang, JG Simmons Jr, Y Cheng, E Lin, J Yang, JV Foreman, HO Everitt, W Yang, J Kim, J Liu. Sulfur-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostars: Synthesis and simulation of growth mechanism. Nano Research. 2012 Jan. 5(1): 20-26.

Darrell Nettlow

Dr. Nettlow was born in North Ayrshire, Scotland and traveled frequently between the US and UK for most of his early life before he and his family settled in Kotzebue, Alaska. He elected to complete his undergraduate training at Boston University where he developed an interest in medical philosophy and completed his senior thesis on the metaphysics of suffering. He was the recipient of a health professions scholarship through the US Air Force and attending the University Of Vermont College Of Medicine followed by residency at San Antonio Military Medical Center. The USAF awarded him a civilian sponsorship to attend UCSD for a fellowship in pulmonary and critical care medicine. While not at work Dr. Nettlow enjoys the sisyphean task of teaching his cats to walk on a leash.
  • Residency: Internal Medicine, San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium. San Antonio, TX
  • Medical School: University of Vermont College of Medicine, MD. Burlington, VT
  • Undergraduate: Boston University, BA Biochemistry/Molecular Biology, Minor philosophy. Boston, MA
  • LGBTQ+ cultural competency training in medical education
  • Delirium evaluation/prevention in ICU patients
  • Medical device development/testing
  • Interventional pulmonary medicine
  1. M.F. Odish, J. Barry, D. Nettlow, J. Yang, S. Penziner, A. Cowell, R. Taplitz, R.L. Owens (May 2019). Disseminated Adenovirus Resulting in ARDS Treated with Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Brincidofovir. Presented at: American Thoracic Society (ATS); Dallas, TX, USA
  2. T. Powell, T. Fullam, J. Hammett, D. Nettlow, J. Harris. Vertebral Artery Dissection in Active-Duty Soldier Due to Mixed Martial Arts Choke Hold. Fed Pract. 2018; 35(7):12-17.
  3. J. Perlman, D. Nettlow, B. Cardoso, R. Mickey, A. Howard, S. Garapati, M. Gilbert (April 2016). Assessment of Inpatient Glycemic Management after CABG in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Presented at: Endocrine Society (Endo); Boston, MA, USA

Dr. Nokes is a clinical fellow and physician-scientist at UCSD. He is a trained molecular biologist as well as the previous manager of a translational research lab prior to medical school. He attended the University of Arizona-Tucson for medical school, where he was a member of Alpha Omega Alpha. Throughout the course of his training, Dr. Nokes has published over 30 manuscripts as well as successfully conducted multiple research projects through Mayo Clinic Arizona as well as UCSD. He has been selected as an American Thoracic Society ASPIRE fellow, received a career development award from the Sleep Research Society for his work regarding negative effort dependence as a mechanism of upper airway collapse in obstructive sleep apnea, as well as joined the T32 grant under the mentorship of Atul Malhotra.
  • 2005 - 2009: Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia - BS, Neurobiology/Behavioral Neuroscience
  • 2009: Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia - MS, Cellular/Molecular Biology
  • 2011 - 2015: College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona - MD
  • 2015 - 2018: Internal Medicine Residency, Internal Medicine, Programs in Arizona, Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Scottsdale, Arizona - Resident
He has a clinical interest in understanding and modulating upper airway physiology, and since his time at UCSD has become facile in both conducting and analyzing genioglossal EMG data. He has completed two prospective clinical trials during his fellowship examining transoral neuromuscular stimulation as a treatment modality for snoring and mild sleep apnea (under review) – details at (NCT03913494) and Clinical (NCT03829956). He plans to parlay these experiences into a K23 application in the coming year prior to joining faculty at UCSD.
  • Tatum S. Simonson, Tracy L. Baker, Robert B. Banzett, Tammie Bishop, Jerome A. Dempsey, Jack L. Feldman, Patrice G. Guyenet, Emma J. Hodson, Gordon S. Mitchell, Esteban A. Moya, Brandon T. Nokes, Jeremy E. Orr, Robert L. Owens, Marc Poulin, Jean M. Rawling, Christopher N. Schmickl, Jyoti J. Watters, Magdy Younes, Atul Malhotra. Silent Hypoxaemia in COVID-19 patients. J Phys 2020.
  • Nokes B, Raza H, Cartin-Ceba R, Lyng P, Krahn L, Wesselius L, Jokerst C, Umar S, Griffing L, Neville M, Malhotra A, Parish J. Individuals With Scleroderma May Have Increased Risk of Sleep-Disordered Breathing JCSM 2019.
  • Nokes B, Malhotra A. International Consensus Statement on Obstructive Sleep Apnea (ICS-OSA) - Arousal Threshold. 2020 (in press).
  • Malhotra A, Nokes B, DeYoung P, Owens R. Why do we sometimes ignore the chief complaint in sleep apnea? J Clin Sleep Med. 2020 Feb 5. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.8310. PMID: 32022681
  • Nokes B, Raza H, Malhotra A. Pulmonary Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2020 Feb 5. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.8302. PMID: 3202267J Clin Sleep Med. 2020 Feb 5. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.8302
  • Nokes B, Tseng A, Cartin-Ceba R, Jokerst C, Shamoun F, Mertz L. Anticoagulation in Behçet related intrathoracic vasculitis. Resp Med Case Reports. 2018.
  • Nokes B, Jensen EA, Cartin-Ceba R: Unusual Cause of Severe Airflow Limitation in a Patient with Eisenmenger's Syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018.
  • Desai A, Mohan P, Nokes B, Seth D, Knapp S, Boustani M, Chalasani N, Fallon M, Calhoun E. Increasing Economic Burden in Hospitalized Cirrhotics: Analysis of a National Database. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. PMCID: PMC6708673 DOI: 10.14309/ctg.0000000000000062
  • Nokes B, Afshar, K. Adjunctive therapies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis—where do we stand? J Thorac Dis 2018.
  • Lang J, Zhu W, Nokes B, Sheth G, Novak P, Fuchs L, Watts G, Futscher B, Mineyev N, Ring A, LeBeau L, Nagle R, Cranmer L. Characterization of a novel radiation-induced sarcoma cell line. J Surg Oncol. 2015 May; 111(6):669-82. Epub 2015 Feb 02. PMID: 25644184 PMCID: 4406876 DOI: 10.1002/jso.23860.
  • Nokes B, Brighton A, Larsen B, Prasad P, Beamer S, Cartin-Ceba R, Swanson K. Pneumocytic Adenomyoepithelioma: A Case Providing Support for the Benignity of this Extremely Rare Pulmonary Neoplasm. Respir Med Case Rep. 2018.
  • Nokes B, Sim Y, Gibson B, Byreddy S, Labiner DM, Coull B, Chong J. Assessment of stroke risk in southern Arizona, the pairing of acculturation and stroke risk factor development. J Immigr Minor Health. 2015 Apr; 17(2):513-8. PMID: 24173570 DOI: 10.1007/s10903-013-9940-3

Dr. Patel was born and raised in southern Africa with completion of medical school at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg where he received a merit-based scholarship and was invited to join the Golden Key International Honor Society. He developed an interest in pulmonary and critical care medicine during residency with a special interest in the use of ultrasound modalities as a rapid diagnostic tool for various medical conditions within this field. He has presented his research at national meetings including American College of Chest Physicians.
  • 2006-2011: Medical School: University of Witwatersrand Medical School, South Africa
  • 2013-2016: Residency : Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia
  • 2016-2017: Chief Resident: Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia
  • 2018-2021: Fellowship: Pulmonary and Critical Care, UC San Diego
  • Use of POCUS in pulmonary and critical care medicine
  • Biomarkers for early detection of sepsis
  1. Patel, S.R., & Patel, N.K., & Wani, A. (October, 2016). Pulmonary Hypertension in Hyperthyroidism: A reversible cause. Presented at: American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST); Los Angeles, CA, USA.
  2. Mulki, R., Patel, S.R., Feyssa, E.. (November, 2016). Improvement in treatment lag in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after implementation of a new multi-disciplinary model at a tertiary center. Presented at: American Association for study of Liver diseases (AASLD); Boston, MA, USA.
  3. Patel, S.R., & Huang, G., & Dissinyake, I. (May, 2016). A curious case of Evans Syndrome. Presented at: American College of Physicians (ACP) Nationals; Washington, D.C., USA.
  4. Patel, S.R. & Phowthongkum, P. (May, 2016). Splenic infarct in the setting of stable atherosclerosis of aortic arch with iatrogenic manipulation. Presented at: American College of Physicians (ACP) Nationals; Washinton, D.C., USA.

Dr. Yang was raised in Swarthmore, PA, and attended medical school in Philadelphia. While at Jefferson Medical College, she gained both clinical and research experience and was inducted into the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society.  After medical school, she ventured out to the west coast for residency at UCSD, where her interest in pulmonary and critical care medicine started. She then pursued research projects investigating outcomes of rapid responses and inpatient cardiac arrests and plans to continue this during fellowship.
  • 2007-2011: Davidson College, BS, Biology 
  • 2011-2015: Jefferson Medical College, MD 
  • 2015-2018: UC San Diego, Internship & Residency, Internal Medicine
  • 2018-2021: UC San Diego, Fellowship, Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine 
  • Cardiac Arrest/ Resuscitation 
  • Critical Care
  • Meier A, Yang J, Liu J, Beitler JR, Tu XM, Owens RL, Sundararajan RL, Malhotra A, Sell RE. Female Physician Leadership During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation is Associated With Improved Patient Outcomes. Crit Care Med. 2018 Oct 9. PubMed PMID: 30303843
  • Hirose H, Gupta S, Pitcher H, Miessau J, Yang Q, Yang J, Cavarocchi N. Feasibility of diagnosis of postcardiotomy tamponade by miniaturized transesophageal echocardiography. Journal of Surgical Research. 2014, Jul: 190(1): 276-279. PubMed PMID: 24703223. 

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