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John B. West Video Lectures

These lectures were prepared as ancillary teaching aids for our own medical students and those in other schools. The material is based on my two books Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials, 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, and Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012. However the lecture format means that more time can be spent discussing the more difficult concepts, and also of course far more illustrations can be included here than in a book. The material may also be useful as a review for residents and fellows in such areas as pulmonary medicine, anesthesiology, and internal medicine, particularly to help with preparation for licensing and other examinations. YouTube links will open into a new window.

A further description of the lectures and why they were developed can be seen here (PDF). 

Lectures in Respiratory Physiology

  1. Structure and Function of the Lung YouTubeDuration: 41:52
  2. Ventilation YouTube Duration: 35:25
  3. Blood Gas Transport YouTube Duration: 41:55
  4. Acid-Base Balance YouTube Duration: 49:53
  5. Diffusion YouTube Duration: 49:28
  6. Pulmonary Blood Flow YouTubeDuration: 52:04
  7. Pulmonary Gas Exchange I YouTube Duration: 61:56
  8. Pulmonary Gas Exchange II YouTube Duration: 55:54
  9. Mechanics of Breathing I YouTube Duration: 46:57
  10. Mechanics of Breathing II YouTube Duration: 54:28
  11. Control of Ventilation YouTube Duration: 60:01
  12. Defense Systems of the Lung YouTube Duration: 46:27
  13. Respiration Under Stress YouTube Duration: 55:30
  14. Respiration at the Limit YouTube Duration: 51:15

Lectures in Pulmonary Pathophysiology

  1. Pulmonary Function Tests YouTube Duration: 54:01
  2. Obstructive Diseases I: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease YouTube Duration: 43:41
  3. Obstructive Diseases II: Asthma and Localized Airway Obstruction YouTube Duration: 46:09
  4. Restrictive Diseases YouTube Duration: 52:16
  5. Vascular Diseases YouTube Duration: 50:43
  6. Environmental and Other Diseases YouTube  Duration: 46:02
  7. Respiratory Failure YouTube Duration: 55:59

Images from the lectures for use by students

Some students have requested that the PowerPoint images used in the videos be made available as a separate file so that notes can be added alongside the images by the viewer. Files of the images have now been added on the understanding that they will be used only for non-commercial, educational purposes. Other uses require permission from the copyright holders who are listed in the section in the Credits section below. Clicking a link in this list will download a Microsoft PowerPoint file.
  1. Structure and Function of the Lung 
  2. Ventilation
  3. Blood Gas Transport
  4. Acid-Base Balance
  5. Diffusion
  6. Pulmonary Blood Flow
  7. Pulmonary Gas Exchange I
  8. Pulmonary Gas Exchange II
  9. Mechanics of Breathing I
  10. Mechanics of Breathing II
  11. Control of Ventilation
  12. Defense Systems of the Lung
  13. Respiration Under Stress
  14. Respiration at the Limit

Acknowledgements 

I thank Gil Jansky for his very professional production of the videos, Zhenxing Fu and Amy Clay for help with preparing the PowerPoints, my colleagues Peter D. Wagner and Frank L. Powell for some of the material, my assistant Keith Lander for transcriptions, and Jess Mandel of the Deans office for financial assistance. Finally many of our excellent medical students have contributed through discussions of the material over the years.

Corrections

As the listener will immediately recognize, these lectures were not read but delivered "on the fly". This makes them less formal. However there are a number of slips of the tongue. For example in the description of the central chemoreceptors, the term blood-gas barrier should really be blood-brain barrier. In the short section on turbulent flow, I should have said that the pressure is approximately equal to the square of the flow, not that flow is related to the square of the pressure. In the section on exercise, the systemic vascular resistance (not the systemic pressure) falls during dynamic exercise but rises during static exercise. The pulmonary function experiment done by the astronaut takes 31 minutes (as shown in the image) not an hour. There are probably other slips of the tongue but the meaning should be clear in the context of the lectures.

Credits for Images

These lectures have been gradually developed over a period of 40 years and they contain over 300 images. In some instances the origin of the images is unknown. Since this is a non-commercial project solely for educational purposes I hope nobody will be offended. Here are the credits where the origin is known.

Structure and Function of the Lung:

2, 8, 33, 35 - Hansen J.T. and Koeppen B.M. Netters Atlas of Human Physiology. Teterboro, NJ: Icon Learning Systems, 2002.
3, 6, 18, 26, 32, 34 - West J.B. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.
4, 5 - Weibel E.R. Physiological Reviews 53:419-495, 1973.
9, 10, 11, 14 - Norman Staub

Blood Gas Transport:

2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 14, 16, 19, 20 - modified from Peter D. Wagner
8, 12, 13, 15, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24 - West J.B. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.

Acid-Base Balance:

3 Guyton A.C. and Hall J.E. Textbook of Medical Physiology, 9th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1996.
4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23 - modified from Peter D. Wagner
7, 24, 25 - West J.B. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.
26 Wilson et al. Am. J. Physiol. 233: 135-140, 1977.

Diffusion:

3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 20 - West J.B. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.
5, 6, 18 - Weibel E.R. Physiological Reviews 53:419-495, 1973.
11 - modified from Peter D. Wagner
14 West J.B. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.

Pulmonary Blood Flow:

2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 28 - West J.B. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.
5, 11 - Weibel E.R. Physiological Reviews 53:419-495, 1973.
22 - West J.B. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.

Pulmonary Gas Exchange I:

2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18 - West J.B. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.
13 - West J.B. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.

Pulmonary Gas Exchange II:

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20 - West J.B. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.
19 - West J.B. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.
9, 10 - West J. B. Regional Differences in the Lung. New York: Academic Press, 1977.
19, 21 - West J.B. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.

Mechanics of Breathing I:

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26 - West J.B. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.

Mechanics of Breathing II:

2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 - West J.B. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.

Control of Ventilation:

2, 6, 8, 11, 12 - West J.B. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.
3 - Cancer Help UK

Respiration Under Stress:

4,7, 9, 15 - West J.B. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.

Respiration at the Limit:

26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 - West J.B. Pulmonary gas exchange on the summit of Mt. Everest. J. Appl. Physiol. 55: 678-687, 1983.

Pulmonary Function Tests:

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20, 21, 23, 34, 36. West JB Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.
6, 14, 22, 25, 37. West JB Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials, 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.
13. Peter D. Wagner

Obstructive Diseases I:

2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 19, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 29, 32, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 47, 49. West JB. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.
5. West JB. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials, 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.
20. Weibel ER. Physiological Reviews, 53: 419-495, 1973.
30, 31. Paul Stark

Obstructive Diseases II:

4, 7, 11, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 31. West JB. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.
33. West JB. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials, 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.
5. http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/asthma. Author: Yale Rosen

Restrictive Diseases:

4, 5, 7, 10, 13. Weibel ER. Physiological Reviews, 53: 419-495, 1973.
17, 18, 20, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 46. West JB. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.
21. Paul Stark.
41. http://www.microscopyu.com/staticgallery/pathology/sarcoidosis20x02.html
47. http://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/rad/cxr/pathology8chest.html
48. http://radiologyschools.com/Radiology-Courses/cxr/pathology7chest.html
50. http://www.flickr.com/photos/kfergos/5509928741/

Vascular Diseases:

4, 5. Weibel ER. Physiological Reviews, 53: 419-495, 1973.
6. Eveline E. Schneeberger.
8, 16. Norman C. Staub.
10. Hayek H. Die menschliche Lunge. Springer, 1953.
9, 11, 12, 13, 17, 32, 38, 42. West JB. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.
25. Schoene RB and Hornbein TF in Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, ed. By FJ Murray and JA Nadel., Saunders, 1994.
27, 28. West JB et al. J. Appl. Physiol. 70: 1731-1742, 1991.
45. http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/LUNGHTML/LUNG153.html

Environmental and Other Diseases:

2, 6, 7, 9, 15, 21. West JB. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.
16. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/297887-overview
17. http://eso-cdn.bestpractice.bmj.com/best-practice/images/bp/en-gb/1112-1-hlight_default.jpg
20. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/297887-overview
24. http://pathhsw5m54.ucsf.edu/case20/silicosis.html
26. http://safetysave.blogspot.com/2008_09_01_archive.html
28. http://usgsprobe.cr.usgs.gov/images/asbestos_3.jpg
29. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ferruginous_body.jpg
35. http://southcarolina1670.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/cotton_boll_blue_sky.jpg
39. http://cancer2000.net/introduction/cancer_death_rates_m.jpg
41. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lung_small_cell_carcinoma_(1)_by_core_needle_biopsy.jpg
44. http://www.lumen.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/MEDICINE/PULMONAR/images/path4/sld44.jpg
46. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Large_cell_carcinoma_of_the_lung_.jpg
48. http://www.clinicaloptions.com/~/media/InPractice/Oncology/ch55 General HIVCancer/HIVandCancer_Figure20.ashx
52. https://secure.muhealth.org/~ed/students/xray/xray_002a.htm
56. http://pathhsw5m54.ucsf.edu/ctpath/ctpathimages/bronchiec11.jpg
58. http://www.art.com/products/p14435637-sa-i3041777/lung-with-cystic-fibrosis.htm

Respiratory Failure:

3, 6. West JB. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials, 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.
20. http://medinfo.ufl.edu/~bms5191/pulmon/images/ards1.jpg
21, 22, 24, 26, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 39, 42. West JB. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.