Jasmine Uysal, Research Project Coordinator
Addressing Reproductive Coercion in HEalth Settings
(ARCHES) is a clinical-based intervention designed by Dr. Jay Silverman
and Dr. Elizabeth Miller to increase women's ability to make decisions around
their own family planning use and pregnancies.1
Previous research from Dr. Silverman and his colleagues has found that
women in controlling or abusive relationships often experience difficulty using
contraceptives or feel pressure to become pregnant when they do not want to be.
2,3 Male partners or family members that wish to influence women's
reproductive choices do so through a set of specific behaviors. These behaviors,
also known as reproductive coercion (RC), can include threats
to coerce her to become pregnant against her will destroying or removing
contraceptive methods, preventing women from obtaining contraception, and other
means of coercion.4 Research has linked these behaviors to unintended
pregnancy, repeated abortion, and intimate partner violence
Below are some quotes from women seeking family planning services in
Nairobi describing the behavior of male partners to control women's
"My sister's case was even worse. Hers even got physical
and her clothes were torn simply because the husband wanted a child. Not that
she doesn't have a child, but the husband thinks that she is taking too long to
have another child as the one that they have is in Class Two." - Family
planning client, Nairobi
"I know of one man who put his wife's pills in hot water
to reduce their effectiveness, and she conceived. Later, when she started
getting nauseous, her husband told her that she might be pregnant, and disclosed
what he did." - Family planning client, Nairobi
ARCHES works to combat reproductive coercion and improve
women's reproductive autonomy for those having facing male partner opposition to
and interference with their use of contraceptives. The model focuses on
delivering education and empowerment related to use of different contraceptive
methods in ways that minimize risk for male partner detection of these methods
and opportunities for him to interfere with her contraceptive use. Providers
also discuss and provide educational and empowerment messaging on the nature of
reproductive coercion, women's rights to reproductive autonomy, as well as
partner violence and utilization of local GBV survivor services. Those
disclosing experience of IPV are personally connected to local gender based
violence (GBV) services by providers. Importantly, all women, regardless of
their experiences or what they choose to disclose, are offered palm-size
educational brochures to further reflect on what they heard and to share with
Over the past year, Dr. Silverman, his team at GEH, and a
consortium of partners including the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), clinicians
from Family Health Options
Kenya (FHOK, the IPPF national affiliate in Kenya), and Population Council have
adapted the ARCHES model for reproductive health care context of Kenya.
Implementation and evaluation of the ARCHES Kenya intervention via a clustered
controlled trial began in December 2017, after Dr. Silverman and his team and
consortium partners successfully trained providers at two clinics to deliver the
intervention. Below, one client explains how her provider used strategies
included in ARCHES Kenya to assist her to overcome reproductive coercion:
". . . [My husband] took me to the health facility and
instructed the doctor to remove the implant from my arm because he wanted more
children. I spoke to the doctor before the Norplant was removed that I did not
want children. The doctor gave me an injection that lasts for 3 months. So my
husband thinks that I'm not using contraception, and that's what I am still
using to date." 8
Continuing to learn from women's experiences in this demonstration, Dr.
Silverman's team is building the evidence for a model of care that improves
women reproductive autonomy that is both sustainable and scalable. This work
will form the foundation for ARCHES to be implemented at a larger scale within
Kenya and across other low and middle-income (LMIC) country contexts. More
broadly, this intervention is part of the Center on Gender Equity and Health's
(GEH) mission to improve the lives and reproductive health of women and girls
globally through high quality research and programming.
- Miller E, Decker MR, McCauley HL, Silverman, JG. A family planning clinic
partner violence intervention to reduce risk associated with reproductive
coercion. Contraception. 2011;83(3):274-280.
- Miller E, Jordan B, Levenson R, Silverman JG. Reproductive Coercion:
Connecting the Dots Between Partner Violence and Unintended Pregnancy.
Contraception. 2010;81(6):457-459. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2010.02.023.
- Silverman JG, Raj A (2014) Intimate Partner Violence and Reproductive
Coercion: Global Barriers to Women's Reproductive Control. PLoS Med 11(9):
- The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2013) Committee
Opinion: Reproductive Health and Sexual Coercion. Obstet Gynecol 121: 411–415.
- Miller E, Silverman JG. Reproductive coercion and partner violence:
implications for clinical assessment of unintended pregnancy. Expert review of
obstetrics & gynecology. 2010;5(5):511-515. doi:10.1586/eog.10.44.
- Miller E, Decker MR, McCauley HL, Tancredi D, Levenson R, Silverman JG.
(2010) Pregnancy coercion, intimate partner violence, and unintended pregnancy.
Contraception 81: 316–322.
- Silverman JG, Decker MR, McCauley HL, Gupta J, Miller E, Raj A, Goldberg A.
Male perpetration of intimate partner violence and involvement in abortions and
abortion-related conflict. American Journal of Public Health 2010; 100:1415-7.
- Jay Silverman, Sabrina Boyce, et al. ARCHES: Reducing Adolescent and Adult
Unintended Pregnancy and Partner Violence in Kenya Formative Research Report.