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Red Meat & Disease Risk Publications

Red Meat in Human Evolution: From a Blessing to a Curse?
Harvard School of Public Health Nutrition Seminar | April 2020

*PDF links are provided are as a courtesy to Varki lab members and collaborators.

Axxx: Original Research Articles
Bxxx: Invited/Other Publications

Red Meat Risk Publications
Anthropogeny Publications

A286. Martin, P.T., Kawanishi, K., Ashbrook, A., Golden, B., Samraj, A., Crowe, K.E., Zygmunt, D.A., Okerblom, J., Yu, H., Maki, A., Diaz, S., Chen, X., Janssen, P.M.L., and Varki, A. Serum Antibodies to N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid Are Elevated in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Correlate with Increased Disease Pathology in Cmah−/−mdx Mice. Am J Pathol. 191:1474-1486. 2021.

B201. Kawanishi, K., Dhar, C., Varki, A., and Gordts, P.L.S.M. Reply to Soulillou et al.: Difficulties in extrapolating from animal models exemplify unusual human atherosclerosis susceptibility and mechanisms via CMAH loss. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 117(4):1847-48. 2020.

A271. Zaramela, L.S., Martino, C., Alisson-Silva, F., Rees, S.D., Diaz, S.L., Chuzel, L., Ganatra, M.B., Taron, C.H., Secrest, P., Zuñiga, C., Huang, J., Siegel, D., Chang, G., Varki, A., and Zengler, K. Gut bacteria responding to dietary change encode sialidases that exhibit preference for red meat-associated carbohydrates. Nat Microbiol. 4(12):2082-89. 2019. UCSD Press Release

A270. Kawanishi, K., Dhar, C., Do, R., Varki, N., Gordts, P.L.S.M., and Varki, A. Human species-specific loss of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase enhances atherosclerosis via intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 116:16036-16045. 2019. UCSD Press Release   Medical News Today   The Scientist    Science Daily

B196. Dhar, C., Sasmal, A., and Varki, A. From “Serum Sickness” to “Xenosialitis”: Past, Present, and Future Significance of the Non-human Sialic Acid Neu5Gc. Front Immunol. 10:807. 2019.

A261. Samraj, A.N., Bertrand, K.A., Luben, R., Khedri, Z., Yu, H., Nguyen, D., Gregg, C.J., Diaz, S.L., Sawyer, S., Chen, X., Eliassen, H., Padler-Karavani, V., Wu, K., Khaw, K.T., Willett, W., and Varki, A. Polyclonal human antibodies against glycans bearing red meat-derived non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid are stable, reproducible, complex and vary between individuals: Total antibody levels are associated with colorectal cancer risk. PLoS One. 13:e0197464. 2018.

A251. Bergfeld, A.K., Lawrence, R., Diaz, S.L., Pearce, O.M.T., Ghaderi, D., Gagneux, P., Leakey, M.G., and Varki, A. N-glycolyl groups of nonhuman chondroitin sulfates survive in ancient fossils. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 114:E8155-E8164. 2017. UC San Diego Press Release

B179. Okerblom, JJ, and Varki, A. Biochemical, Cellular, Physiological and Pathological Consequences of Human loss of N-glycolylneuraminic Acid. (Invited Review) Chem Bio Chem. 18: 1155-1171. 2017. 

B175. Alisson-Silva, F., Kawanishi, K., and Varki, A. Human risk of diseases associated with red meat intake: analysis of current theories and proposed role for metabolic incorporation of a non-human sialic acid. Mol Aspects Med. 51:16-30, 2016.

B170. Varki, N.M. and Varki, A. On the Apparent Rarity of Epithelial Cancers in Captive Chimpanzees Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015. 370:20140225.

B169. Pearce, O.M.T., Samraj, A.N., Läubli, H., A., Varki, N., Varki, A. Reply to Mackenzie: A comparison of Neu5Gc and alpha-gal xenoantigens. (Invited Letter) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 112:E1405, 2015. 

A229. Samraj, A.N., Pearce, O.M.T., Läubli, H., A., Crittenden, A.N., Bergfeld, A.K., Banda, K., Gregg, C.J., Bingman A.E., Secrest, P., Diaz, S.L., Varki, N., Varki, A. A Red Meat-Derived Glycan Promotes Inflammation and Cancer Progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 112:542-7, 2015. UC San Diego Press Release

B166. Bergfeld A., Samraj, A. and Varki, A. Metabolism of N-glycolylneuraminic Acid in Human and Non-Human Cells, and Potential Relationships to Human Disease. (Invited Essay) IN Glycoscience: Biology and Medicine, edited by Endo, T., Seeberger, P.H., Hart, G.W., Wong, C.-H., and Taniguchi, N. Springer, Tokyo, pp1-8 2014.

B163. Samraj, A., Läubli, H., Varki, N., Varki, A. Involvement of a non-human sialic acid in human cancer. Front Oncol. 4:33, 2014.

A204. Bergfeld, A.K. Pearce, O.M., Diaz, S.L., Pham, T., and Varki, A. Metabolism of Vertebrate Amino Sugars with N-glycolyl Groups: Elucidating the intracellular fate of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J Biol Chem. 287:28865-28881, 2012.

A203. Banda, K., Gregg, C.J., Chow, R., Varki, N.M., and Varki, A. Metabolism of Vertebrate Amino Sugars with N-glycolyl Groups: Mechanisms underlying gastrointestinal Incorporation of the non-human sialic acid Xeno-autoantigen, N-glycolylneuraminic acid.  J Biol Chem. 287:28852-28864, 2012.

B151. Ghaderi, D., Zhang, M., Hurtado-Ziola, N., and Varki, A. Production platforms for biotherapeutic glycoproteins. Occurrence, impact, and challenges of non-human sialylation.  Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev. 28:147-175, 2012.

A191. Padler-Karavani, V., Hurtado-Ziola, N., Pu, M., Yu, H., Huang, S., Muthana, S., Chokhawala, H.A., Cao, H., Secrest, P., Friedmann-Morvinski, D., Singer, O., Ghaderi, D., Verma, I.M., Liu, Y.-T., Messer, K., Chen, X., Varki, A., and Schwab, R. Human Xeno-autoantibodies Against a Non-human Sialic Acid Serve As Novel Serum Biomarkers and Immunotherapeutics in Cancer. Cancer Res. 71:3352-3363, 2011.

B148. Padler-Karavani, V., and Varki, A. Potential Impact of the Non-human Sialic Acid N-glycolylneuraminic Acid on Transplant Rejection Risk (Invited Commentary). Xenotransplantation, 18:1-5, 2011.

B147. Varki, N.M., Strobert, E., Dick Jr., E.J., Benirschke, K. and Varki, A. Biomedical Differences Between Humans and Nonhuman Hominids: Potential Roles for Uniquely Human Aspects of Sialic Acid Biology (Invited Review). Annu. Rev. Pathol., 6:365-393, 2011.

A187. Ghaderi, D., Taylor, R.E., Padler-Karavani, V., Diaz, S., and Varki, A. Implications of the presence of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in recombinant therapeutic glycoproteins.  Nat Biotechnol. 28:863-867, 2010. 

A186. Taylor, R.E., Gregg, C.J., Padler-Karavani, V., Ghaderi, D., Yu, H., Huang, S., Sorensen, R.U., Chen, X., Inostroza, J., Nizet, V., and Varki, A. Novel mechanism for the generation of human xeno-autoantibodies against the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J Exp Med. 207:1637-1646, 2010.

B143. Varki A. Colloquium Paper: Uniquely Human Evolution of Sialic Acid Genetics and Biology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 107 (Suppl 2): 8939-8946, 2010.

A182. Soto, P.C., Stein, L.L., Hurtado-Ziola, N., Hedrick, S.M., and Varki A. Relative Over-reactivity of Human versus Chimpanzee Lymphocytes: Implications for the Human Diseases Associated with Immune Activation. J Immunol. 184:4185-4195, 2010.

A180. Pham, T.*, Gregg, C.J.*, Karp, F., Chow, R., Padler-Karavani, V., Cao, H., Chen, X., V., Witztum, J.L., Varki, N.M. and Varki, A. Evidence for a Novel Human-specific Xeno-Auto-Antibody Response Against Vascular Endothelium.  Blood. 114:5225-5235, 2009. * = The contributions of the first two authors are equal.

A172. Diaz, S.L., Padler-Karavani, V., Ghaderi, D., Hurtado-Ziola, N., Yu, H., Chen, X.,Brinkman-Van der Linden, E.C.M., Varki, A., and Varki, N.M. Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Non-Human Sialic Acid N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid In Human Tissues and Biotherapeutic Products.  PLoS ONE, 4:e4241, 2009.

A170. Hedlund, M., Padler-Karavani, V., Varki, N.M., and Varki, A. Evidence for a Human-Specific Mechanism for Diet and Antibody-Mediated Inflammation in Carcinoma Progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 105:18936-18941, 2008.

A168. Byres, E., Paton, A.W., Paton, J.C., Löfling, J.C., Smith, D.F., Wilce, M.C., Talbot, U.M., Chong, D.C., Yu, H., Huang, S., Chen, X., Varki, N.M., Varki, A.#, Rossjohn, J. #, and Beddoe, T. # : Incorporation of a non-human glycan mediates human susceptibility to a bacterial toxin.  Nature. 456:648-652, 2008. # = corresponding authors.

A166. Padler-Karavani, V., Yu, H., Cao, H., Chokhawala, H., Karp, F., Varki, N., Chen, X., and Varki, A. Diversity in Specificity, Abundance and Composition of Anti-Neu5Gc Antibodies in Normal Humans: Potential Implications for Disease.  Glycobiology. 18:818-830, 2008.

A160. Hedlund, M., Tangvoranuntakul, P., Takematsu, H., Long, J.M., Housley, G.D., Kozutsumi, Y., Suzuki, A., Wynshaw-Boris, A., Ryan, A.F., Gallo, R.L., Varki, N. and Varki, A. N-glycolylneuraminic Acid Deficiency in Mice: Implications for Human Biology and Evolution. Mol Cell Biol. 27:4340-4346, 2007.

B105. Varki, A.: Glycan-based Interactions Involving Vertebrate Sialic Acid-Recognizing Proteins (Invited Review). Nature. 446:1023-1029, 2007.

A143. Nguyen, D.H., Tangvoranuntakul, P., Varki, A. Effects of natural human antibodies against a non-human sialic acid that metabolically incorporates into activated and malignant immune cells. J Immunol. 175:228-236, 2005.

A141. Bardor, M., Nguyen, D., Diaz, S., Varki, A. Mechanism of Uptake and Incorporation of the Non-Human Sialic Acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid into Human Cells. J Biol Chem. 280:4228-4237, 2005.

A140. Martin, M.J., Moutri, A., Gage, F., Varki, A. Human Embryonic Stem Cells Express an Immunogenic Non-Human Sialic Acid. Nat Med. 11:228-232, 2005. UC San Diego Press Release

A133. Tangvoranuntakul, P., Gagneux, P., Diaz, S., Bardor, M., Varki, N.M., Varki, A., and Muchmore, E.: Human Uptake and Incorporation of an Immunogenic Non-human Dietary Sialic Acid. Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:12045-12050, 2003.

A097. Chou, H-¬H., Takematsu, H., Diaz, S., Iber, J., Nickerson, E., Wright, K.L., Muchmore, E.A., Nelson, D.L., Warren, S.T. and Varki, A. A mutation in human CMP-sialic acid hydroxylase occurred after the Homo-Pan divergence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 95:11751-11756, 1998. UC San Diego Press Release 

A096. Muchmore, E.A., Diaz, S. and Varki, A. A structural difference between the cell surfaces of humans and the great apes. Amer J Physical Anthropology. 107:187-198, 1998.