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Red Meat & Disease Risk Publications

Red Meat in Human Evolution: From a Blessing to a Curse?
Harvard School of Public Health Nutrition Seminar | April 2020

*PDF links are provided are as a courtesy to Varki lab members and collaborators.

Axxx: Original Research Articles
Bxxx: Invited/Other Publications

Red Meat Risk Publications
Anthropogeny Publications

B201. Kawanishi, K., Dhar, C., Varki, A., and Gordts, P.L.S.M. Reply to Soulillou et al.: Difficulties in extrapolating from animal models exemplify unusual human atherosclerosis susceptibility and mechanisms via CMAH loss. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 117(4):1847-48. 2020.

A271. Zaramela, L.S., Martino, C., Alisson-Silva, F., Rees, S.D., Diaz, S.L., Chuzel, L., Ganatra, M.B., Taron, C.H., Secrest, P., Zuñiga, C., Huang, J., Siegel, D., Chang, G., Varki, A., and Zengler, K. Gut bacteria responding to dietary change encode sialidases that exhibit preference for red meat-associated carbohydrates. Nat Microbiol. 4(12):2082-89. 2019. UCSD Press Release

A270. Kawanishi, K., Dhar, C., Do, R., Varki, N., Gordts, P.L.S.M., and Varki, A. Human species-specific loss of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase enhances atherosclerosis via intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 116:16036-16045. 2019. UCSD Press Release   Medical News Today   The Scientist    Science Daily

B196. Dhar, C., Sasmal, A., and Varki, A. From “Serum Sickness” to “Xenosialitis”: Past, Present, and Future Significance of the Non-human Sialic Acid Neu5Gc. Front Immunol. 10:807. 2019.

A261. Samraj, A.N., Bertrand, K.A., Luben, R., Khedri, Z., Yu, H., Nguyen, D., Gregg, C.J., Diaz, S.L., Sawyer, S., Chen, X., Eliassen, H., Padler-Karavani, V., Wu, K., Khaw, K.T., Willett, W., and Varki, A. Polyclonal human antibodies against glycans bearing red meat-derived non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid are stable, reproducible, complex and vary between individuals: Total antibody levels are associated with colorectal cancer risk. PLoS One. 13:e0197464. 2018.

A251. Bergfeld, A.K., Lawrence, R., Diaz, S.L., Pearce, O.M.T., Ghaderi, D., Gagneux, P., Leakey, M.G., and Varki, A. N-glycolyl groups of nonhuman chondroitin sulfates survive in ancient fossils. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 114:E8155-E8164. 2017. UC San Diego Press Release

B179. Okerblom, JJ, and Varki, A. Biochemical, Cellular, Physiological and Pathological Consequences of Human loss of N-glycolylneuraminic Acid. (Invited Review) Chem Bio Chem. 18: 1155-1171. 2017. 

B175. Alisson-Silva, F., Kawanishi, K., and Varki, A. Human risk of diseases associated with red meat intake: analysis of current theories and proposed role for metabolic incorporation of a non-human sialic acid. Mol Aspects Med. 51:16-30, 2016.

B170. Varki, N.M. and Varki, A. On the Apparent Rarity of Epithelial Cancers in Captive Chimpanzees Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015. 370:20140225.

B169. Pearce, O.M.T., Samraj, A.N., Läubli, H., A., Varki, N., Varki, A. Reply to Mackenzie: A comparison of Neu5Gc and alpha-gal xenoantigens. (Invited Letter) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 112:E1405, 2015. 

A229. Samraj, A.N., Pearce, O.M.T., Läubli, H., A., Crittenden, A.N., Bergfeld, A.K., Banda, K., Gregg, C.J., Bingman A.E., Secrest, P., Diaz, S.L., Varki, N., Varki, A. A Red Meat-Derived Glycan Promotes Inflammation and Cancer Progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 112:542-7, 2015. UC San Diego Press Release

B166. Bergfeld A., Samraj, A. and Varki, A. Metabolism of N-glycolylneuraminic Acid in Human and Non-Human Cells, and Potential Relationships to Human Disease. (Invited Essay) IN Glycoscience: Biology and Medicine, edited by Endo, T., Seeberger, P.H., Hart, G.W., Wong, C.-H., and Taniguchi, N. Springer, Tokyo, pp1-8 2014.

B163. Samraj, A., Läubli, H., Varki, N., Varki, A. Involvement of a non-human sialic acid in human cancer. Front Oncol. 4:33, 2014.

A204. Bergfeld, A.K. Pearce, O.M., Diaz, S.L., Pham, T., and Varki, A. Metabolism of Vertebrate Amino Sugars with N-glycolyl Groups: Elucidating the intracellular fate of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J Biol Chem. 287:28865-28881, 2012.

A203. Banda, K., Gregg, C.J., Chow, R., Varki, N.M., and Varki, A. Metabolism of Vertebrate Amino Sugars with N-glycolyl Groups: Mechanisms underlying gastrointestinal Incorporation of the non-human sialic acid Xeno-autoantigen, N-glycolylneuraminic acid.  J Biol Chem. 287:28852-28864, 2012.

B151. Ghaderi, D., Zhang, M., Hurtado-Ziola, N., and Varki, A. Production platforms for biotherapeutic glycoproteins. Occurrence, impact, and challenges of non-human sialylation.  Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev. 28:147-175, 2012.

A191. Padler-Karavani, V., Hurtado-Ziola, N., Pu, M., Yu, H., Huang, S., Muthana, S., Chokhawala, H.A., Cao, H., Secrest, P., Friedmann-Morvinski, D., Singer, O., Ghaderi, D., Verma, I.M., Liu, Y.-T., Messer, K., Chen, X., Varki, A., and Schwab, R. Human Xeno-autoantibodies Against a Non-human Sialic Acid Serve As Novel Serum Biomarkers and Immunotherapeutics in Cancer. Cancer Res. 71:3352-3363, 2011.

B148. Padler-Karavani, V., and Varki, A. Potential Impact of the Non-human Sialic Acid N-glycolylneuraminic Acid on Transplant Rejection Risk (Invited Commentary). Xenotransplantation, 18:1-5, 2011.

B147. Varki, N.M., Strobert, E., Dick Jr., E.J., Benirschke, K. and Varki, A. Biomedical Differences Between Humans and Nonhuman Hominids: Potential Roles for Uniquely Human Aspects of Sialic Acid Biology (Invited Review). Annu. Rev. Pathol., 6:365-393, 2011.

A187. Ghaderi, D., Taylor, R.E., Padler-Karavani, V., Diaz, S., and Varki, A. Implications of the presence of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in recombinant therapeutic glycoproteins.  Nat Biotechnol. 28:863-867, 2010. 

A186. Taylor, R.E., Gregg, C.J., Padler-Karavani, V., Ghaderi, D., Yu, H., Huang, S., Sorensen, R.U., Chen, X., Inostroza, J., Nizet, V., and Varki, A. Novel mechanism for the generation of human xeno-autoantibodies against the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J Exp Med. 207:1637-1646, 2010.

B143. Varki A. Colloquium Paper: Uniquely Human Evolution of Sialic Acid Genetics and Biology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 107 (Suppl 2): 8939-8946, 2010.

A182. Soto, P.C., Stein, L.L., Hurtado-Ziola, N., Hedrick, S.M., and Varki A. Relative Over-reactivity of Human versus Chimpanzee Lymphocytes: Implications for the Human Diseases Associated with Immune Activation. J Immunol. 184:4185-4195, 2010.

A180. Pham, T.*, Gregg, C.J.*, Karp, F., Chow, R., Padler-Karavani, V., Cao, H., Chen, X., V., Witztum, J.L., Varki, N.M. and Varki, A. Evidence for a Novel Human-specific Xeno-Auto-Antibody Response Against Vascular Endothelium.  Blood. 114:5225-5235, 2009. * = The contributions of the first two authors are equal.

A172. Diaz, S.L., Padler-Karavani, V., Ghaderi, D., Hurtado-Ziola, N., Yu, H., Chen, X.,Brinkman-Van der Linden, E.C.M., Varki, A., and Varki, N.M. Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Non-Human Sialic Acid N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid In Human Tissues and Biotherapeutic Products.  PLoS ONE, 4:e4241, 2009.

A170. Hedlund, M., Padler-Karavani, V., Varki, N.M., and Varki, A. Evidence for a Human-Specific Mechanism for Diet and Antibody-Mediated Inflammation in Carcinoma Progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 105:18936-18941, 2008.

A168. Byres, E., Paton, A.W., Paton, J.C., Löfling, J.C., Smith, D.F., Wilce, M.C., Talbot, U.M., Chong, D.C., Yu, H., Huang, S., Chen, X., Varki, N.M., Varki, A.#, Rossjohn, J. #, and Beddoe, T. # : Incorporation of a non-human glycan mediates human susceptibility to a bacterial toxin.  Nature. 456:648-652, 2008. # = corresponding authors.

A166. Padler-Karavani, V., Yu, H., Cao, H., Chokhawala, H., Karp, F., Varki, N., Chen, X., and Varki, A. Diversity in Specificity, Abundance and Composition of Anti-Neu5Gc Antibodies in Normal Humans: Potential Implications for Disease.  Glycobiology. 18:818-830, 2008.

A160. Hedlund, M., Tangvoranuntakul, P., Takematsu, H., Long, J.M., Housley, G.D., Kozutsumi, Y., Suzuki, A., Wynshaw-Boris, A., Ryan, A.F., Gallo, R.L., Varki, N. and Varki, A. N-glycolylneuraminic Acid Deficiency in Mice: Implications for Human Biology and Evolution. Mol Cell Biol. 27:4340-4346, 2007.

B105. Varki, A.: Glycan-based Interactions Involving Vertebrate Sialic Acid-Recognizing Proteins (Invited Review). Nature. 446:1023-1029, 2007.

A143. Nguyen, D.H., Tangvoranuntakul, P., Varki, A. Effects of natural human antibodies against a non-human sialic acid that metabolically incorporates into activated and malignant immune cells. J Immunol. 175:228-236, 2005.

A141. Bardor, M., Nguyen, D., Diaz, S., Varki, A. Mechanism of Uptake and Incorporation of the Non-Human Sialic Acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid into Human Cells. J Biol Chem. 280:4228-4237, 2005.

A140. Martin, M.J., Moutri, A., Gage, F., Varki, A. Human Embryonic Stem Cells Express an Immunogenic Non-Human Sialic Acid. Nat Med. 11:228-232, 2005. UC San Diego Press Release

A133. Tangvoranuntakul, P., Gagneux, P., Diaz, S., Bardor, M., Varki, N.M., Varki, A., and Muchmore, E.: Human Uptake and Incorporation of an Immunogenic Non-human Dietary Sialic Acid. Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:12045-12050, 2003.

A097. Chou, H-¬H., Takematsu, H., Diaz, S., Iber, J., Nickerson, E., Wright, K.L., Muchmore, E.A., Nelson, D.L., Warren, S.T. and Varki, A. A mutation in human CMP-sialic acid hydroxylase occurred after the Homo-Pan divergence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 95:11751-11756, 1998. UC San Diego Press Release 

A096. Muchmore, E.A., Diaz, S. and Varki, A. A structural difference between the cell surfaces of humans and the great apes. Amer J Physical Anthropology. 107:187-198, 1998.