Cells are highly responsive to its environment, ranging from nutrients, peptide/protein ligands, hormones, chemical mutagens, pathogens, and others. A variety of signal transduction pathways are involved to control how cells respond to various stimuli, leading to the regulation of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Understanding the molecular mechanism of these signaling pathways is a common interest of many faculties in the CMM. A number of approaches, including genetic, biochemical and cell biological methods; as well as modern proteomic and genomic approaches are used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms. Specifically, the following areas are being investigated, including the control of cell cycle, receptor and membrane trafficking, inflammation, neuronal developments, immune responses, bacterial pathogenesis and genome maintenance.