Figures and Teaching Slides

This page provides quick links to all figures in Essentials of Glycobiology, Third edition, which each include a downloadable slide. These links are part of a free, public resource available on the NCBI website. Each link below opens a separate page with the figure, legend, reference information, and the link to the downloadable slide. Please follow appropriate academic attribution and copyright conventions. Most of the figures were originally drawn or redrawn by Dr. Richard Cummings (Illustrations Editor).The figures are deliberately downsized in quality for on-screen presentation. For access to and permission to reproduce high-quality figures, contact Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Chapter 1  Historical Background and Overview

Figure 1.2    Open-chain and ring forms of glucose
Figure 1.3    Schematic representation of the Thy-1 glycoprotein
Figure 1.4    Examples of electron micrographs of glycans coating cell surfaces
Figure 1.5    Examples of symbols and conventions for drawing glycan structures
Figure 1.6    Common classes of animal glycans
Figure 1.7    Glycan-protein linkages reported in nature
Figure 1.8    Biosynthesis, use and turnover of a common monosaccharide

Chapter 2  Monosaccharide Diversity

Figure 2.1    Structures of glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone
Figure 2.2    D- and L-glucopyranose in Fischer projection and chair conformation
Figure 2.3    Fischer projections for the acyclic forms of the D series of aldoses
Figure 2.4    Common monosaccharides found in vertebrates
Figure 2.5    Cyclization of acyclic D-glucose to form pyranose and furanose structures
Figure 2.6    Conversion from Fischer to Haworth projection
Figure 2.7    Chair conformations

Chapter 3  Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides  

Figure 3.1    Examples of branched structures in N- and O-linked glycans
Figure 3.2    Repeating units of cellulose and starch showing conformation determining torsion angles ϕ and ψ
Figure 3.3    Structures of repeating units glycosaminoglycans and conformations of heparan sulfate  monosaccharides
Figure 3.4    Schematic representation of repeating units of bacterial polysaccharides

Chapter 4  Cellular Organization of Glycosylation

Figure 4.1    Initiation and maturation of eukaryotic glycoconjugates in the ER–Golgi–plasma membrane pathway
Figure 4.2    Topology and localization of Golgi Golgi glycosyltransferases and glycosidases

Chapter 5  Glycosylation Precursors

Figure 5.1    Biosynthesis and interconversion of monosaccharides
Figure 5.2    Biosynthesis of UDP-xylose and the branched sugar donor UDP-apiose from UDP-GlcA
Figure 5.3    Conversion of activated sugar donors
Figure 5.4    Nucleotide sugar transporters for PAPS and ATP in Golgi membranes of mammals yeast protozoa,
                     and plants

Chapter 6  Glycosyltransferases and Glycan-Processing Enzymes

Figure 6.1    Strict acceptor substrate specificity of glycosyltransferases illustrated by B blood group transferase
Figure 6.2    Human chorionic gonadotropin recognition determinants used by glycoprotein hormone GalNAc
                     transferase
Figure 6.3    Domain structure of a typical sialyltransferase, showing sialyl motifs shared by this family of enzymes
Figure 6.4    Ribbon diagrams of representative GT-A, GT-B, GT-C, and lysozyme-type fold glycosyltransferases
Figure 6.5    Schematic representation of (A) inverting and (B) retaining catalytic mechanisms
Figure 6.6    Catalytic site of bovine β1-4 galactosyltransferase

Chapter 7  Biological Functions of Glycans

Figure 7.1    General classification of the biological functions of glycans
Figure 7.2    Approaches for elucidating the biological functions of glycans

Chapter 8  A Genomic View of Glycobiology

Figure 8.1    Schematic examples of modular GTs (glycosyltransferases)

Chapter 9  N-Glycans

Figure 9.1    Types of N-glycans
Figure 9.2    Dolichol phosphate (Dol-P)
Figure 9.3    Synthesis of Dolichol-P-P-GlcNAc2Man9Glc3
Figure 9.4    Processing and maturation of an N-glycan
Figure 9.5    Branching and core modification of complex N-glycans
Figure 9.6    Typical complex N-glycans found on mature glycoproteins.

Chapter 10  O-GalNAc Glycans

Figure 10.1    A simplified model of a large secreted mucin
Figure 10.2    Biosynthesis of core 1 and 2 O-GalNAc glycans as described in the text. Green lines are protein
Figure 10.3    Biosynthesis of core 3 and 4 O-GalNAc glycans as described in the text. Green lines are protein

Chapter 11  Glycosphingolipids

Figure 11.1    Structures of representative glycosphingolipids (GSLs) and glycoglycerolipids
Figure 11.2    Glycosphingolipid (GSL) neutral cores and their designations based on IUPAC Nomenclature
Figure 11.3    Glycosphingolipids are synthesized by stepwise addition of sugars to ceramide and then to glycans

Chapter 12  Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors

Figure 12.1    General structure of GPI anchors
Figure 12.2    Chemical and enzymatic reactions of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors
Figure 12.3    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-biosynthetic pathways of mammalian cells and Trypanosoma brucei
Figure 12.4    Predicted topologies of the components of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis in 
                       mammalian cells
Figure 12.5    Features of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and processing by GPI transamidase

Chapter 13  Other Classes of Eukaryotic Glycans

Figure 13.1    Modifications of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats
Figure 13.2    Extracellular domain of Notch showing the evolutionarily conserved sites for O-fucose and O-glucose
Figure 13.3    Notch signaling pathway
Figure 13.4    Modifications of thrombospondin type-1 repeats (TSRs)
Figure 13.5    Biosynthetic pathway for O-mannose glycans
Figure 13.6    Biosynthetic pathway for C-mannosylation and structural details of tryptophan-7 in RNase 2

Chapter 14   Structures Common to Different Glycans

Figure 14.1    N-Glycan synthesis generates complex N-glycans with branching GlcNAc residues that are
                       usually extended
Figure 14.2    Terminal GlcNAc residues are usually galactosylated
Figure 14.3    Blood group i and I antigen synthesis
Figure 14.4    Type-1, -2, and -3 H, A, and B antigens that form the O (H), A, and B blood group determinants
Figure 14.5    Synthesis of H (O), A, and B blood group determinants
Figure 14.6    Type-1 and -2 Lewis determinants
Figure 14.7    Biosynthesis of antigens of the P1PK blood group system: Pk, P, and P1
Figure 14.8    Structure and synthesis of the Galα1-3Gal antigen
Figure 14.9    Structure and synthesis of N-glycans bearing terminal GalNAc, including those with sulfated-GalNAc
Figure 14.10   Synthesis of the human Sda or mouse CT antigen and the glycolipid GM2
Figure 14.11   Synthesis of α2-6 and α2-3 Sias on O-glycans and glycolipids by ST3Gal and ST6GalNAc 
                        sialyltransferases
Figure 14.12   Structure and synthesis of glycans with α2-8 sialic acids, including PolySia on N-glycans

Chapter 15  Sialic Acids and Other Nonulosonic Acids

Figure 15.1    Sialic acids (Sias) and other nonulosonic acids (NulOs)
Figure 15.2    Diversity in sialic acid linkages
Figure 15.3    Hierarchical levels of sialome complexity
Figure 15.4    Metabolism of N-acetylneuraminic acid in vertebrate cells

Chapter 16  Hyaluronan

Figure 16.1    Hyaluronan consists of repeating disaccharides composed of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and
                       glucuronic acid (GlcA)
Figure 16.2    Hyaluronan biosynthesis by hyaluronan synthase 
Figure 16.3    Modular organization of the link module superfamily of hyaluronan-binding proteins
Figure 16.4    The large cartilage chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan (aggrecan) forms an aggregate with
                       hyaluronan and link protein
Figure 16.5    Structure of the link module
Figure 16.6    Hyaluronan capsule

Chapter 17  Proteoglycans and Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans

Figure 17.1     Proteoglycans consist of a protein core and one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan chains
Figure 17.2     Glycosaminoglycans consist of repeating disaccharide units
Figure 17.3     Keratan sulfates are sulfated poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains -linked to either Asn or Ser/Thr residues
Figure 17.4     Biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate and HS initiated by the formation of a linkage region tetrasaccharide
Figure 17.5     Biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate

Chapter 18  Nucleocytoplasmic Glycosylation

Figure 18.1    Mechanism of glycosylation of Skp1 in the cytoplasm of protists
Figure 18.2    Topology of glycosylation reactions and the destinations of their product glycoconjugates

Chapter 19  The O-GlcNAc Modification

Figure 19.1    Many nuclear, mitochondrial, and cytoplasmic proteins are modified by O-linked β-GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc)
Figure 19.2    (A) O-GlcNAcylated proteins occur in many different cellular compartments
Figure 19.3    O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is regulated by multiple complex mechanisms
Figure 19.4    Elevating O-GlcNAc blocks insulin signaling at many points

Chapter 20   Evolution of Glycan Diversity

Figure 20.1    Circular depiction of phylogeny of life on earth
Figure 20.2    Dominant pathways of N-glycan processing among different eukaryotic taxa

Chapter 21   Eubacteria

Figure 21.1    Organization of cell envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and mycobacteria
Figure 21.2    Structure, biosynthesis, and inhibition of peptidoglycan assembly
Figure 21.3    Structures of additional cell wall polymers in classical Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria
Figure 21.4    Structural organization of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs)
Figure 21.5    Assembly and export of lipopolysaccharides
Figure 21.6    Structures of exopolysaccharides and capsular polysaccharides

Chapter 22   Archaea

Figure 22.1    Diversity of cell wall structure in the domain of Archaea
Figure 22.2    The chemical structure of pseudomurein
Figure 22.3    The structural diversity of N-linked glycans in Archaea
Figure 22.4    The pathway of N-glycosylation in Haloferax volcanii

Chapter 23   Fungi

Figure 23.1    Illustration of the cell wall of fungi, showing glycan polymers and mannoproteins
Figure 23.2    Structures of selected yeast mannans
Figure 23.3    Structures of selected O-linked glycans in fungi
Figure 23.4    Biosynthesis of N-glycans and addition to -Asn-X-Ser/Thr- residues in newly synthesized glycoproteins
Figure 23.5    Structures of two yeast glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors
Figure 23.6    A quick-freeze deep-etch image of the edge of a Cryptococcus neoformanscell
Figure 23.7    Structures of capsular polysaccharides in Cryptococcus neoformans

Chapter 24   Viridiplantae and Algae

Figure 24.1    Glycosyl sequences of cellulose and selected hemicelluloses present in plant cell walls
Figure 24.2    Schematic structure of pectin
Figure 24.3    Schematic structure of proteoglycan referred to as arabinoxylan pectin arabinogalactan
                       protein1 (APAP1)
Figure 24.4    Types of N-glycans identified in plants
Figure 24.5    Processing of N-glycans in the plant secretory system
Figure 24.6    The most abundant plant galactolipids

Chapter 25   Nematoda

Figure 25.1    Caenorhabditis elegans
Figure 25.2    Life cycle of Caenorhabditis elegans
Figure 25.3    Biosynthesis of paucimannosidic and core fucosylated N-glycans in Caenorhabditis elegans
Figure 25.4    Biosynthesis of core-1 O-glycan in C. elegans and some O-glycans proposed to occur in adult worms
Figure 25.5    Biosynthesis of chondroitin in Caenorhabditis elegans
Figure 25.6    Chondroitin proteoglycans (CPGs) of Caenorhabditis elegans
Figure 25.7    Examples of nematode glycolipids

Chapter 26   Arthropoda

Figure 26.1    N-Linked glycan diversity in Drosophila and other insects
Figure 26.2    Mutations in enzymes that process complex N-linked glycans alter brain morphology in D. melanogaster
Figure 26.3    O-Linked glycan diversity in Drosophila and other insects
Figure 26.4    Cell fate choices dependent on Notch require appropriate glycan expression
Figure 26.5    Glycosaminoglycans regulate the contact-dependent maintenance of germline stem cells (GSCs)
Figure 26.6    Glycosphingolipid glycan diversity

Chapter 27   Deuterostomes

Figure 27.1    The purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Sperm binding to a sea urchin egg
Figure 27.2    Xenopus laevis. Embryonic development from the neurula stage until just before hatching
Figure 27.3    Zebrafish
Figure 27.4    Cre-loxP targeting for making conditional gene knockouts in the mouse

Chapter 28   Discovery and Classification of Glycan-Binding Proteins

Figure 28.1    Representative structures from four common animal lectin families
Figure 28.2    Arrangements of carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) in lectins
Figure 28.3    Several major structural families of glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) and their biological distributions
Figure 28.4    Mechanisms of enhanced binding of natural ligands to lectins

Chapter 29   Principles of Glycan Recognition

Figure 29.1    Monovalent and multivalent interactions of a glycan-binding protein with glycan ligands
Figure 29.2    Equations governing the interactions of a glycan-binding protein or lectin (L) with a glycan ligand (G)
Figure 29.3    Frontal affinity chromatography, different glycan concentrations applied to a column of immobilized GBP
Figure 29.4    Example of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC)
Figure 29.5    Example of surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
Figure 29.6    Covalent glycan microarrays printed on N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)- or epoxide-activated glass slides

Chapter 30  Structural Biology of Glycan Recognition

Figure 30.1    Representation of 6 calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding sites found in crystal structures of lectins
Figure 30.2    Distribution of lectins with structures in the 3D-Lectin database as a function of fold family
Figure 30.3    Chemical shift mapping of exchange binding sites for a 4-sulfated CS hexamer on Link module of TSG6
Figure 30.4    STD Binding epitope identification in complex-type glycan bound to HIV-1 neutralizing antibody PG16
Figure 30.5    Docking of a heparan sulfate (HS) hexamer to the chemokine CXCL12α
Figure 30.6    Interactions between donor acceptor and protein residues in the active site of ST6Gal1

Chapter 31  R-Type Lectins

Figure 31.1    The R-type lectin superfamily
Figure 31.2    Ricin and abrin
Figure 31.3    Structures of the β-trefoil R-type domains in different proteins
Figure 31.4    Pathway of ricin uptake and toxic activity of the A chain in the cytoplasm results in cell death
Figure 31.5    Structure and function of UDP-GalNAc

Chapter 32  L-Type Lectins

Figure 32.1    Structure of ConA, a legume seed lectin in complex with a branched pentasaccharide
Figure 32.2    Comparison of subunit structures of soybean agglutinin and human galectin-3 complexed glycan ligands
Figure 32.3    3D structure of a peanut agglutinin (PNA) monomer showing the four loops involved in sugar binding
Figure 32.4    Schematic representation of calnexin and its lectin domain, P domain and the calcium-binding domain

Chapter 33  P-Type Lectins

Figure 33.1    Historical background regarding cross-correction of lysosomal enzyme deficiencies in cultured cells
Figure 33.2    Pathways for biosynthesis of N-glycans bearing the mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) recognition marker
Figure 33.3    GlcNAc-P-T is an α2β2γ2 hexamer encoded by two genes
Figure 33.4    Ribbon diagram of the bovine cation-dependent M6P receptor (CD-MPR)
Figure 33.5    Subcellular trafficking pathways of glycoproteins, lysosomal enzymes, and M6P receptors (MPRs)

Chapter 34  C-Type Lectins

Figure 34.1    Structure of C-type lectins (CTLs)
Figure 34.2    Crystal structure of trimeric rat mannose-binding protein-A complexed with α-methylmannoside
Figure 34.3    Different groups of C-type lectins (CTLs) and their domain structures
Figure 34.4    Some C-type lectins (CTLs) are endocytic receptors
Figure 34.5    Signaling activity of C-type lectins (CTLs) in innate immune responses
Figure 34.6    Structures and functions of selectins

Chapter 35  I-Type Lectins

Figure 35.1    Domain structures of the known Siglecs in humans and mice
Figure 35.2    Structural basis of Siglec binding to ligands
Figure 35.3    Proposed biological functions mediated by CD22
Figure 35.4    Probable evolutionary chain of Red Queen effects involving Sias and CD33rSiglecs
Figure 35.5    Proposed biological functions mediated by CD33-related Siglecs

Chapter 36  Galectins

Figure 36.1    Different types of galectins in vertebrates and invertebrates and their organization and sequences
Figure 36.2    (A) Ribbon diagram of the crystal structure of human galectin-1 complexed with lactose
Figure 36.3    Structural aspects of galectins from mammals and invertebrates
Figure 36.4    Possible biosynthetic routes for galectins in animal cells, using galectin-1 as an example
Figure 36.5    Galectin interactions with cell-surface and extracellular ligands leads cell adhesion and signaling

Chapter 37  Microbial Lectins: Hemagglutinins, Adhesins, and Toxins

Figure 37.1    Structure of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) ectodomain
Figure 37.2    Two views of a putative heparin sulfate–binding site on the dengue virus envelope protein
Figure 37.3    Escherichia coli express hundreds of pili, indicated by the fine filaments extending from the bacterium
Figure 37.4    The α anomer of mannose in the combining site of FimH
Figure 37.5    Crystal structure of cholera toxin B-subunit pentamer bound to GM1 pentasaccharide

Chapter 38  Proteins That Bind Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans

Figure 38.1    Conformation of heparin oligosaccharides
Figure 38.2    Crystal structure of the antithrombin–pentasaccharide complex (from Protein Data Bank)
Figure 38.3    Crystal and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution structures of GAG–protein complexes

Chapter 39  Glycans in Glycoprotein Quality Control

Figure 39.1    Mature N-glycan
Figure 39.2    Model of quality control in glycoprotein folding
Figure 39.3    Degradation of oligomannosyl N-glycans in the ER, cytoplasm, and lysosomes

Chapter 40  Free Glycans as Signaling Molecules

Figure 40.1    Plant defense response
Figure 40.2    (A) Oligosaccharide elicitors of the plant defense response
Figure 40.3    Generic structure of a Nod factor
Figure 40.4    A nonasaccharide from xyloglucan that shows signaling properties
Figure 40.5    Schematic diagram of signaling pathways activated by binding of hyaluronan to CD44

Chapter 42  Bacterial and Viral Infections

Figure 42.1    Classical experiments on the role of the pneumococcal polysaccharide capsule in virulence
Figure 42.2    Activation of immune signaling by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
Figure 42.3    Examples of mechanisms of bacterial adherence to host-cell surfaces
Figure 42.4    Structure of a polymicrobial biofilm
Figure 42.5    Mechanisms of viral entry into host cells

Chapter 43  Parasitic Infections
Figure 43.1    Life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, a parasite that causes the most severe form of human malaria 
Figure 43.2    Schematic representation of the major surface glycoconjugates of procyclic and metacyclic Trypanosoma
Figure 43.3    Schematic representation of the major surface glycoconjugates of Trypanosoma cruzi
Figure 43.4    Life cycle of Leishmania species
Figure 43.5    Schematic representation of the major cell-surface glycoconjugates of Leishmania
Figure 43.6    Structure of Entamoeba histolytica lipopeptidophosphoglycan (LPPG)
Figure 43.7    Life cycle of Schistosoma species, the parasitic helminth that causes schistosomiasis in humans
Figure 43.8    Glycan structures found in parasitic helminths, including Schistosoma mansoni and Haemonchus   contortus

Chapter 44  Genetic Disorders of Glycan Degradation

Figure 44.1    Degradation of complex N-glycans
Figure 44.2    Degradation of hyaluronan and heparan sulfate
Figure 44.3    Degradation of chondroitin/dermatan sulfates (CS/DS) and keratan sulfate (KS)
Figure 44.4    Degradation of glycosphingolipids

Chapter 45  Genetic Disorders of Glycosylation

Figure 45.1    Glycosylation-related disorders (graph)
Figure 45.2    Congenital disorders of glycosylation in the N-glycosylation pathway
Figure 45.3    UDP-Gal synthesis and galactosemia
Figure 45.4    O-Man glycan biosynthetic pathway

Chapter 47  Glycosylation Changes in Cancer

Figure 47.1    N-Glycans increase in size on transformation, partly because of increased GlcNAc branching of N- glycans
Figure 47.2    Loss of epithelial cell topology and polarization in cancer results in secretion of truncated mucins
Figure 47.3    Gangliosides expressed in human neuroectodermal tumors
Figure 47.4    Normal platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells interact via selectins and selectin ligands
Figure 47.5    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in cancer

Chapter 48  Glycan-Recognizing Probes as Tools

Figure 48.1    Examples of N-glycans recognized by concanavalin A (ConA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)
Figure 48.2    Examples of types of N-glycans recognized by L-PHA, E-PHA, and DSA
Figure 48.3    Examples of types of glycan determinants bound with high affinity by different plant and animal lectins
Figure 48.4    Examples of types of glycan determinants bound with high affinity by different plant lectins
Figure 48.5    Examples of different mammalian glycan antigens recognized by specific monoclonal antibodies
Figure 48.6    Additional examples of mammalian glycan antigens recognized by specific monoclonal antibodies
Figure 48.7    Examples of different uses of plant and animal lectins, carbohydrate-binding molecules and antibodies 
Figure 48.8    Example of use of immobilized plant lectins in serial lectin affinity chromatography of glycopeptides

Chapter 49   Glycosylation Mutants of Cultured Mammalian Cells
Figure 49.1    Alteration of cell-surface glycans by recessive and dominant glycosylation mutations
Figure 49.2    Selections for glycosylation mutants
Figure 49.3    Mutation of UDP-Gal-4-epimerase in ldlD mutant CHO cells prevents generation of UDP-Gal
                       and UDP-GalNAc

Chapter 50   Structural Analysis of Glycans

Figure 50.1    Glycosidases used for structural analysis
Figure 50.2    Example of linkage analysis showing a bacterial O-linked branched hexasaccharide
Figure 50.3    Section of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of N-glycans released from the Fc of human IgG1
Figure 50.4    ϕ–ψ energy plot for the glycosidic torsion angles between Glc residues in Glcβ1-4Glc-OMe

Chapter 51   Glycomics and Glycoproteomics

Figure 51.1    Glycomics/glycoproteomics workflow for analysis of a purified glycoprotein
Figure 51.2    Glycomics-assisted glycoproteomics of a complex mixture of glycoproteins
Figure 51.3    Collision-induced dissociation–tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) fragmentation of released N-glycans
Figure 51.4    Complementary tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragmentation of N-glycopeptides

Chapter 52   Glycoinformatics

Figure 52.1    The critical role of glycomics in systems biology

Chapter 53   Chemical Synthesis of Glycans and Glycoconjugates
Figure 53.1    (A) Stereospecific formation of glycosidic bonds as either an α- or β-linkage
Figure 53.2    Protective group manipulations performed in one-pot procedures. Building blocks for glycan assembly
Figure 53.3    Solution phase synthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa–derived decasaccharide 10
Figure 53.4    Automated glycan assembly: (A) a tetrasaccharide and (B) an alginate dodecasaccharide
Figure 53.5    cis-Arabinofuranosylation in the context of the synthesis of a plant cell wall arabinogalactan fragment 27

Chapter 54   Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Glycans and Glycoconjugates

Figure 54.1    Formation and hydrolysis of the glycosphingolipid, glucosylceramide
Figure 54.2    Glycosyltransferase-mediated synthesis of sialyl Lewis x
Figure 54.3    Glycosyltransferase-mediated synthesis of ganglio-oligosaccharides
Figure 54.4    Chemoenzymatic synthesis of a library of mammalian N-glycans
Figure 54.5   (A) Equilibrium in a retaining β-glucosidase. (B) Mutant retaining β-glucosidase 
Figure 54.6    Glycosynthase-mediated synthesis of flavonoid glycosides
Figure 54.7    A combined glycosyltransferase/glycosynthase/chemical synthesis of a lysosphingolipid
Figure 54.8    Glycosynthase-mediated synthesis of homogeneous peptide N-glycans

Chapter 55  Chemical Tools for Inhibiting Glycosylation

Figure 55.1    Structure of tunicamycin, which consists of uridine conjugated to the disaccharide, tunicamine
Figure 55.2    Broad-spectrum inhibitors of the ppGalNAcTs identified from screening a uridine-based library
Figure 55.3    Inhibitors of O-GlcNAc-specific β-hexosaminidase (OGA) and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT)
Figure 55.4    Inhibitors of glycosphingolipid formation
Figure 55.5    Structure of influenza neuraminidase inhibitors
Figure 55.6    Crystallographic structures of influenza virus neuraminidases with inhibitors bound in the active site

Chapter 56  Glycosylation Engineering

Figure 56.1    Overview of species-specific glycosylation features
Figure 56.2    Precise gene editing modalities
Figure 56.3    Complex N-glycan with glycosyltransferases responsible for each reaction

Chapter 57  Glycans in Biotechnology and the Pharmaceutical Industry

Figure 57.1    Examples of carbohydrate-based drugs
Figure 57.2    The synthetic influenza neuraminidase inhibitors Relenza and Tamiflu
Figure 57.3    Glycomimetic E-selectin inhibitors based on sialyl Lewis x

Chapter 58  Glycans in Nanotechnology

Figure 58.1    Different types of glyconanomaterials created by coupling glycans to surfaces of diverse nanomaterials
Figure 58.2    Calculated representation of 2-nm-sized gold glyconanoparticle and corresponding TEM image
Figure 58.3   (A) Binding studies using sLex-MNPs to rat E-selectin; (B) MRIs and 3D reconstruction of sLex-MNPs
Figure 58.4    In vivo localization of filled-and-functionalized glyco-single-walled nanotubules (SWNTs)

Chapter 59  Glycans in Bioenergy and Materials Science

Figure 59.1    Stacking of cellulose chains with regions of “order” and “disorder." Cellulose nanomaterial extraction
Figure 59.2    Transmission electron microscopy images showing two types of cellulose nanomaterials

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